Democracy: A system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives. The people are granted supreme authority. -direct: a form of democracy in which people decide (e. g. vote on, form consensus on, etc. ) policy initiatives directly. -indirect: A representative democracy, in which people vote for representatives who then decide policy initiatives. -liberal: A form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of liberalism: protecting the rights of minorities and the individual.
-illiberal: A governing system in which citizens are cut off from knowledge about the activities of those who exercise real power because of the lack of civil liberties. Plutocracy: A society ruled by a small minority of the top wealthiest people. Aristocracy: The rule of nobles and royalty; rule is based on heredity. Theocracy: Rule based off of religious ideals and beliefs. Kleptocracy: A government that steals money to function. Technocracy: A system in which people with a lot of knowledge about science or technology control a society.
Oligarchy: A form of government in which the power to rule is held by a small, usually self- appointed elite. Monarchy: A society that is ruled by one figure; hereditary. Anarchy: A society that is against all forms of government and the rule of law. Socialism: A society based on the idea that the benefits of econ. activity should be fairly distributed. Any of various economic and political theories advocating collective or governmental ownership and administration of the means of production and distribution of goods.
A way of organizing a society in which major industries are owned and controlled by the government rather than by individual people and companies. Communism: An ideology that calls for the collective, or state, ownership of land and other productive property, seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. -Theoretical: (Marxist) A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
-Modern: (Bolshevik Party) was that it was more than just a set of doctrinal speculations or localized communal experiments. It was to become a full-scale political movement challenging the existing order in its entirety. Fascism: A form of radical authoritarian nationalism that came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe. Fascists seek to unify their nation through a totalitarian state that promotes the mass mobilization of the national community, relying on a vanguard party to initiate a revolution to organize the nation on fascist principles.
Federal: A system of gov. in which a written constitution divides power between a central, or national, government and several regional governments. Unitary: A central. gov. in which all gov. powers belong to a single, central agency. Parliamentary: A form of gov. in which the exec. Branch is made up of the prime minister and his/her cabinet. Republican: A form of government in which affairs of state are public matters and public offices are subsequently appointed or elected rather than privately accommodated. Confederal: A joining of several groups for a common purpose.
Authoritarian: A form of gov. in which those in power hold absolute + unchallengeable authority over the ppl. (Ie. Dictatorships). Totalitarian: A political system in which the state holds total authority over the society and seeks to control all aspects of public and private life wherever possible. Egalitarian: A government founded by the idea all people are equal and deserve equal rights and opportunities. Dictatorial: A system in which one ruler has total authority. Majoritarian: A gov. believing in decision by a majority.
Pluralist: The acknowledgment of a diversity of political systems; belief that there should be diverse and competing centers of power in society, so that there is a marketplace for ideas. Matriarchy: A society in which females, especially mothers, have the central roles of political leadership, moral authority, and control of property. Patriarchy: A social system in which the male is the primary authority figure central to social organization and the central roles of political leadership, moral authority, and control of property, and where fathers hold authority over women and children.
Paternalistic: A system under which an authority undertakes to supply needs or regulate conduct of those under its control in matters affecting them as individuals as well as in their relations to authority and to each other. Imperialistic: The policy, practice, or advocacy of extending the power and dominion of a nation especially by direct territorial acquisitions or by gaining indirect control over the political or economic life of other areas; the extension or imposition of power, authority, or influence.
Hegemonic: The influence or control by a country or social group over another country or a group of people. Direct: Everyone makes legal decisions. Indirect: People vote for representatives who make decisions for them. Protectorate: A state that is controlled and protected by another. Kat Pardo P. 7 Political Philosophy The following terms/ideas are (must be) repeatedly argued, discussed, and debated in the study and practice of government. Your changing appreciation and interpretation of their definition and meaning will be vital to how you choose to act politically. Know it: YES Sort of?
Definition Society: A community of people living in a particular country or region and having shared customs, laws, and organizations. State: A body of ppl. living in a defined territory, having a gov. w/ the pwr. to make and enforce law w/o the consent of any higher authority. Law: The system of rules that a particular country or community recognizes as regulating the actions of its members and may enforce by the imposition of penalties. Order: An authoritative command, direction, or instruction. Violence: The unlawful exercise of physical force or intimidation by the exhibition of such force.
Revolution: A forcible overthrow of a government or social order in favor of a new system. A dramatic and wide-reaching change in the way something works or is organized or in people’s ideas about it. Power: The capacity or ability to direct or influence the behavior of others or the course of events. Authority: The power or right to give orders, make decisions, and enforce obedience. Sovereignty: A self-governing state. Legitimacy: Conforming to the law or to rules; to lawfully justify. Representation: The action of speaking or acting on behalf of someone or the state of being so represented.
Autonomy: The right or condition of self-government. Consent: Permission for something to happen or an agreement to do something. Coercion: The practice of persuading someone to do something by using force or threats. Punishment: The infliction or imposition of a penalty as retribution for an offense. Social Class: The system of ordering a society in which people are divided into sets based on perceived social or economic status. Property: The right to the possession, use, or disposal of something; ownership. Rights: Morally good, justified, or acceptable justices granted to others.
Liberty: The state of being free within society from oppressive restrictions imposed by authority on one’s way of life, behavior, or political views. Justice: The quality of being fair and reasonable. Equality: The state of being equal, esp. in status, rights, and opportunities. Welfare: Statutory procedure or social effort designed to promote the basic physical and material well-being of people in need. Well-being: Perception of the quality of life. Public interest: What the gov. believes is good for the ppl.. Common Good: Benefits or interests of all.
Collective Responsibility: A concept or doctrine, according to which individuals are to be held responsible for other people’s actions by tolerating, ignoring, or harboring them, without actively collaborating in these actions. Civil Society: The aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens or individuals and organizations in a society which are independent of the government. Ideology: A system of ideas and ideals, esp. one that forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy.