I believe that government is servant of the people and not their master. ” A statement told by David Rockfeller powerfully telling that a government is not a hinder to tranquility, thus, a way for each nation to gain system in peace and order. A government is the organization through which the state articulates and enforces its will. Government comes from the term govern. From Old French governer, derived from Latin gubernare “to direct, rule, guide, govern”, which is derived from the Greek kybernan (to pilot a ship). It exists for the benefit of the people governed.
The protection of its inhabitants, the administration of justice, and the advancement of the physical, economic, social and cultural well-being of the people is highly significant. Having a preserve atmosphere of systemized state is one of the functions of having a government. Needless to say, without any kind of organization, a sentiment of anxiety and difficulty may dwell in its people; and therefore prevailing of no recognition of progress and development.
The study of the various forms of government has been a fascinating task among political thinkers because conceptual disagreement has marked man’s effort even at the time of Ancient Greeks to distinguish states according to their forms of government. The difficulty of classifying governments may be attributed to the inadequacy of a universally accepted criterion upon which all government may be classified. The years passed, since the government is same as living organisms, these governing bodies of persons in states change their forms. History proves that from one period to another, different forms of government have risen and fallen.
According to Aristotle, the sovereign powers of government may be exercised by one person, a few men, or by many. Monarchy is the oldest form of government. It is in which the final authority is in the hands of a single person without regard to the source of his election, nature, or duration of his tenure. The word comes from the Greek language word monarkhes (from monos, “one, singular”, and arkho, “to rule”). In current usage the word monarchy usually refers to a traditional system of hereditary rule, as elective monarchies are rare nowadays.
A monarchy has a king, queen, emperor, empress, Czar, Kaiser, Shah, Emir and Sultan in which the head of the state. The ruling position can be passed on to the ruler’s heirs, meaning a kind of hereditary ruler. Most monarchies are hereditary, but some are elected. The most famous elected monarch is the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. Monarchy is divided into two types – (a) absolute monarchy in which is a form of government where only the monarch himself or herself is the only source of all laws and the monarch can make any law they want just by deciding it. The ruler rules by divine ????? ? ? ? right and exercises absolute power.
This applies the Divine Theory, an oldest theory of how the state came into being. It postulates that the state is of divine origin and God vested political power in certain persons or group of persons. They are God’s agents on earth. The ruler in monarchy is the chief, executive, the legislator, and the judge at the same time. All land and property in the country can be taken or given away by the monarch at any time for any reason.
The army and navy is under the personal control of the monarch and can be used for any purpose at any time. The monarch can also pick who gets to be the next monarch and can change the rules at any time. Countries that are examples of an absolute monarchy are reign of Louis XIV of France, and the Spanish Monarchy under King Philip II, and some in Vatican City, Brunei, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Oman and Swaziland. The other type of monarchy is (b) constitutional monarchy in which the ruler rules in accordance with the constitution.