Crime prevention is a term used to describe the methods used in order to reduce victimization and to deter crimes and criminals. As we know, there are numerous crimes being committed, which disturb the peace in the land. Although we cannot eliminate crimes completely, it is important to take steps to lessen crimes from occurring. This project aims to give an overview of what juvenile crime is all about, and it also aims to offer ideas or ways of preventing crimes. STEPS NECESSARYIN DEVELOPING WAYS OF PREVENTING CRIME: • Get involve.
We all know too well what the effects of crimes are yet most of us simply do not care as long as the crimes do not take place on our own backyards. Thus, personal awareness is necessary to know that each of us can do something in lessening crime and that our society needs us to do our move. Thinking alone would not get us anywhere thus some sort of action is necessary in order to ensure the safety of the land. Intellectual talks among friends and family members could be a great help. Makes sure that you could get to other people the word that they could do something to prevent crime, and preventing crimes could start on your own homes.
• Parents ought to be reminded of the important role they play in shaping their children’s attitude and outlook in life. First and foremost we should take note of the fact that family is the most basic unit within a society and thus family plays an important role in shaping an individual. Thus in order to deter or to prevent crimes we must first reach out to families as well as to individuals per se. We could do this by asking for volunteers social workers to conduct visits on each house within a certain neighborhood.
From then on those volunteers would talk with the parents in order to show them that they play a vital role in their children’s lives. They should be made to see that their proper guidance could diminish the likeliness that their children be involved in crimes. • Reach out to those youth who have lost interest in bettering their lives and make them feel important. Drop outs youth as well as gang members often had the tendency to be involved in crimes. Make them feel that they are still important and that their society needs them. Change their outlooks in life into a positive one.
By this alone a great change could follow. TYPES OF CRIME PREVENTION A thorough understanding of the impact crime has on our lives as well as a realization that we all could do something to make a change is the first step in lessening crimes. Researchers could also help in determining the areas which needs help the most. It is in this regard that the three types of crime prevention which are effective in their own ways were developed. Our government could make use of these programs in order to ensure that crime would be somehow lessened on each society.
a) PRIMARY PREVENTION – The government could use this kind of prevention in addressing individual and family level aspects that are connected with what would be later considered as crime participation. Increases in participation in social activities and constant guidance of the parents are effective means in decreasing the probability that one may be involved in a crime. The government could send volunteers or representatives on each society in order to create a group of concerned parents and individuals who in turn could work together in order to develop ways in order to prevent juvenile crimes.
They could think up of activities like making room for sports area in order to divert youngsters from crime and focus on sports more and the like. b) SECONDARY PREVENTION – The government could also make use of this kind of prevention which refers to methods being used with high risk situations (drop-out youths, member of gangs, etc. ). This also includes social programs in neighborhoods, which have high rates of crime. Most dropouts and gang members are faced with lots of problems in life and often they do not feel the support of their family thus the government could do something in order to change their outlooks in life.
They could make use of social programs which would help those young people in terms of counseling. They could provide a place to where they could gather and share their problems in order to know that they are not alone and if they wishes for their lives to be otherwise then they could still do something about it. c) TERTIARY PREVENTION – The government could make use of this kind of prevention which is usually used when a crime has already taken place in order to prevent other likely incidents. Examples of this can be seen on actions taken after a terrorist attack such as what happened on September 11, 2001.
In this regard the government could keep close watch to potential criminals making sure that they would not do anything which could harm anyone within the society. CRIME PREVENTION TECHNIQUES The government could use these prevention techniques in making sure that people within a society would abide by the law. • PUNITIVE – this kind of punishment deters a person from committing a crime in fear of being punished. • CORRECTIVE – this gives emphasis on working with the people who have already committed a crime and altering their social conditions in order to ensure that they would not attempt another offense.
• MECHANICAL – putting obstacles on the path of the possible crime offenders in order to ensure that committing a crime would be difficult. JUVENILE – is a term used to describe young persons particularly those under the age of 18. JUVENILE CRIME – Juvenile crime, as the name implies, are crimes made by the young members of our society. Increase in juvenile crimes causes the public great worry. The juvenile justice system is different from the adult justice system. The difference is due to the fact that a juvenile needs different forms of treatment from that of adults.
The consequences of a crime made by adults are primarily made up of punishments, wherein those of juveniles primarily consist of rehabilitation or treatment. JUVENILE COURTS – handle jurisdictions on matters that concern juveniles. Examples of matters held in this court are neglect, delinquency, adoption and certain status offenses (running away, truancy, etc. ). DIFFERENT BELIEFS AS TO THE CAUSE OF JUVENILE CRIMES • The common use of handguns is one reason for high rates of homicide cases. • Family breakdown, neighborhoods and society as a whole is to blame for high rates of juvenile crimes.
• Crime Zones. Shaw (1972) found that external social structure and cultural factors showed delinquent crime was correlated to “places,” rather than to the people who lived there. • Self Efficacy. • Lack of completing high school/lack of education. RECOMMENDED STEPS TO BE TAKEN TO REDUCE JUVENILE CRIMES • Parents should pay close attention to their children and make them feel that they are loved and cherished. Social Control Theory and Self Control Theory both emphasize the influences and consequences of parental upbringing.
They both consider parental upbringing acts as the foundation of socialization and self-orientation and are the major factors that influence an individual’s propensity to commit crime or acts unacceptable by society (Katz, 1999). • Increase police hotspots. For law enforcement, declaring these known areas as an anti-crime zone would necessarily increase surveillance and alert around the questionable neighborhood. The neighborhood would also be alerted to criminal elements and would increase security and safety measures to life and property.
A proposal to order crime suspects to leave a known crime zone residence is impossible, but heightened police presence will necessarily push the crime to another area. • Supporting organizations should conduct seminars that help juveniles who are at risk of committing crimes. • Policy makers should employ strategies such as prevention, intervention and suppression in order to lessen crimes. • Policy makers should ensure proper education is offered for all youth; public awareness programs alerting children (and their families) of the importance of education.
• According to Wilbur Rykert, “a criminal behavior is a learned behavior,” and thus, we should reduce crime “opportunity” in order to reduce the likelihood or the possibility that one would learn a criminal behavior. • Focus on identifying variables that lead to successful adaptation to adverse life experiences. • Improve self-efficacy of youth. According to Bandura, self-efficacy is defined as “people’s beliefs about their capabilities to produce designated levels of performance that exercise influence over events that affect their lives.
” (Bandura 1991) It is necessary to admit that self-efficacy determines the ways of humans’ thinking, feeling, motivations and behaving in a certain way. Humans’ beliefs about their self-efficacy are influenced by experiences, social models, following social persuasion and, finally, by somatic and emotional states. Therefore, self-efficacy is a part of everyday life. (Schwarzer 1992). • Focus on psychological theories and research on criminality and implementing appropriate therapies and therapeutic techniques to assist with thwarting criminal behaviors and activities. CONCLUSION
Follow a proper format during the workshop to include: addressing the process of the Juvenile Justice System; ideas for innovative crime prevention programs, and continuing education relating to research of the causes of crime. All are important areas to consider when developing a juvenile crime reduction program. I find how youth perceive themselves (self-efficacy) and the world, is vital in determining future behaviors and believe early intervention in a negative world view perception and assisting with altering that to a positive perception is a necessary part of crime prevention.
In addition, personal resolve and resilience is innate in some youth’s living under the worst of circumstances. When youth find it within themselves to rise above their tragic situations, it is necessary to know how and why; thus, further research in this area is recommended. If we could tap into what I will term the “resilience factor,” then we can offer better education, community outreach programs and other resources, and we as a community may be able to better assist with a youth’s personal resolve.
Currently, research on resilience has identified several key variables that lead to successful adaptation to adverse life experiences (VandenBos, 2007) which are as follows: 1. The ways in which individuals view and engage the world (e. g. , resistance to “mean world” syndrome). 2. Availability and quality of social resources (e. g. , social support networks). 3. Specific coping strategies (e. g. , ability to reframe, self soothe). I believe all these factors are imperative to consider when designing a workshop designed to reduce juvenile crime.
In addition, there are many psychological theories that aim to understand the psychological developments which contribute to criminal behavior. The motivation to understand these factors is to create prevention measures as well as to develop rehabilitation programs for criminal offenders. In the field of criminology, psychology is one of the perspectives to be considered in understanding the origin, development and occurrence of crime (Coser, 2004). Therefore, an understanding of the significant psychological theories related to crime can provide criminalists a concrete foundation in studying crime.
References VandenBos, G. R. (Ed. ). (2007). APA dictionary of psychology. Washington DC: American Psychological Association. Argosy University Lecture notes. (2007). PSY422 Forensic Psychology. Argosy University Online. Bartol, C. R & Bartol, A. M. (2004) Psychology and Law Psychology and Law: Theory, Research, and Application (Third Edition) Belmont, California: Thompson Wadworth. Shaw, Clifford R. & Henry McKay. (1972). Juvenile delinquency and urban areas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Katz, Rebecca S. (1999) Building the Foundation for a Side-by-Side Explanatory Model: A General
Theory of Crime, the Age-Graded Life-Course Theory, and Attachment Theory. Western Criminology Review 1(2). Retrieved on March 15, 2007 from http://wcr. sonoma. edu/v1n2/katz. html. Bandura, A. (Ed. ) (1995), Self-efficacy in changing societies. New York: Cambridge University Press. Schwarzer, R. (ed. ). (1992). Self-Efficacy: Thought Control of Action. Washington, DC: Hemisphere. http://www. jcpr. org Retrieved June 13, 2007 http://www. jus. state. nc. us Retrieved June 11, 2007 http://www. lao. ca. gov Retrieved June 13, 2007 http://www. lawinfo. com Retrieved June 12, 2007