Federal Reserve System Paper Example

Declaration of Policy. — The State shall maintain a central monetary authority that shall function and operate as an independent and accountable body corporate in the discharge of its mandated responsibilities concerning money, banking and credit.

In line with this policy, and considering its unique functions and responsibilities, the central monetary authority established under this Act, while being a government-owned corporation, shall enjoy fiscal and administrative autonomy. SECTION 2. Creation of the Bangko Sentral. — There is hereby established an independent central monetary authority, which shall be a body corporate known as the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, hereafter referred to as the Bangko Sentral.

The capital of the Bangko Sentral shall be Fifty billion pesos (P50,000,000,000), to be fully subscribed by the Government of the Republic, hereafter referred to as the Government, Ten billion pesos (P10,000,000,000) of which shall be fully paid for by the Government upon the effectivity of this Act and the balance to be paid for within a period of two (2) years from the effectivity of this Act in such manner and form as the Government, through the Secretary of Finance and the Secretary of Budget and Management, may thereafter determine.

SECTION 3. Responsibility and Primary Objective. — The Bangko Sentral shall provide policy directions in the areas of money, banking, and credit. It shall have supervision over the operations of banks and exercise such regulatory powers as provided in this Act and other pertinent laws over the operations of finance companies and non-bank financial institutions performing quasi-banking functions, hereafter referred to as quasi-banks, and institutions performing similar functions.

The primary objective of the Bangko Sentral is to maintain price stability conducive to a balanced and sustainable growth of the economy. It shall also promote and maintain monetary stability and the convertibility of the peso. SECTION 4. Place of Business. — The Bangko Sentral shall have its principal place of business in Metro Manila, but may maintain branches, agencies and correspondents in such other places as the proper conduct of its business may require. SECTION 5. Corporate Powers.

— The Bangko Sentral is hereby authorized to adopt, alter, and use a corporate seal which shall be judicially noticed; to enter into contracts; to lease or own real and personal property, and to sell or otherwise dispose of the same; to sue and be sued; and otherwise to do and perform any and all things that may be necessary or proper to carry out the purposes of this Act. The Bangko Sentral may acquire and hold such assets and incur such liabilities in connection with its operations authorized by the provisions of this Act, or as are essential to the proper conduct of such operations.

The Bangko Sentral may compromise, condone or release, in whole or in part, any claim of or settled liability to the Bangko Sentral, regardless of the amount involved, under such terms and conditions as may be prescribed by the Monetary Board to protect the interests of the Bangko Sentral. ARTICLE II – THE MONETARY BOARD SECTION 6. Composition of the Monetary Board. — The powers and functions of the Bangko Sentral shall be exercised by the Bangko Sentral Monetary Board, hereafter referred to as the Monetary Board, composed of seven (7) members appointed by the President of the Philippines for a term of six (6) years.

The seven (7) members are: (a) the Governor of the Bangko Sentral, who shall be the Chairman of the Monetary Board. The Governor of the Bangko Sentral shall be head of a department and his appointment shall be subject to confirmation by the Commission on Appointments. Whenever the Governor is unable to attend a meeting of the Board, he shall designate a Deputy Governor to act as his alternate: Provided, That in such event, the Monetary Board shall designate one of its members as acting Chairman; (b) a member of the Cabinet to be designated by the President of the Philippines.

Whenever the designated Cabinet Member is unable to attend a meeting of the Board, he shall designate an Undersecretary in his Department to attend as his alternate; and (c) five (5) members who shall come from the private sector, all of whom shall serve full-time: Provided, however, That of the members first appointed under the provisions of this subsection, three (3) shall have a term of six (6) years, and the other two (2), three (3) years. No member of the Monetary Board may be reappointed more than once. SECTION 7. Vacancies.

— Any vacancy in the Monetary Board created by the death, resignation, or removal of any member shall be filled by the appointment of a new member to complete the unexpired period of the term of the member concerned. SECTION 8. Qualifications. — The members of the Monetary Board must be natural-born citizens of the Philippines, at least thirty-five (35) years of age, with the exception of the Governor who should at least be forty (40) years of age, of good moral character, of unquestionable integrity, of known probity and patriotism, and with recognized competence in social and economic disciplines. SECTION 9. Disqualifications.

— In addition to the disqualifications imposed by Republic Act No. 6713, a member of the Monetary Board is disqualified from being a director, officer, employee, consultant, lawyer, agent or stockholder of any bank, quasi-bank or any other institution which is subject to supervision or examination by the Bangko Sentral, in which case such member shall resign from, and divest himself of any and all interests in such institution before assumption of office as member of the Monetary Board. The members of the Monetary Board coming from the private sector shall not hold any other public office or public employment during their tenure.

No person shall be a member of the Monetary Board if he has been connected directly with any multilateral banking or financial institution or has a substantial interest in any private bank in the Philippines, within one (1) year prior to his appointment; likewise, no member of the Monetary Board shall be employed in any such institution within two (2) years after the expiration of his term except when he serves as an official representative of the Philippine Government to such institution. SECTION 10. Removal.

— The President may remove any member of the Monetary Board for any of the following reasons: (a) If the member is subsequently disqualified under the provisions of Section 8 of this Act; or (b) If he is physically or mentally incapacitated that he cannot properly discharge his duties and responsibilities and such incapacity has lasted for more than six (6) months; or (c) If the member is guilty of acts or operations which are of fraudulent or illegal character or which are manifestly opposed to the aims and interests of the Bangko Sentral; or (d) If the member no longer possesses the qualifications specified in Section 8 of this Act.

SECTION 11. Meetings. — The Monetary Board shall meet at least once a week. The Board may be called to a meeting by the Governor of the Bangko Sentral or by two (2) other members of the Board. The presence of four (4) members shall constitute a quorum: Provided, That in all cases the Governor or his duly designated alternate shall be among the four (4). Unless otherwise provided in this Act, all decisions of the Monetary Board shall require the concurrence of at least four (4) members.

The Bangko Sentral shall maintain and preserve a complete record of the proceedings and deliberations of the Monetary Board, including the tapes and transcripts of the stenographic notes, either in their original form or in microfilm. SECTION 12. Attendance of the Deputy Governors. — The Deputy Governors may attend the meetings of the Monetary Board with the right to be heard. SECTION 13. Salary. — The salary of the Governor and the members of the Monetary Board from the private sector shall be fixed by the President of the Philippines at a sum commensurate to the importance and responsibility attached to the position.

SECTION 14. Withdrawal of Persons Having a Personal Interest. — In addition to the requirements of Republic Act No. 6713, any member of the Monetary Board with personal or pecuniary interest in any matter in the agenda of the Monetary Board shall disclose his interest to the Board and shall retire from the meeting when the matter is taken up. The decision taken on the matter shall be made public. The minutes shall reflect the disclosure made and the retirement of the member concerned from the meeting. SECTION 15. Exercise of Authority.

— In the exercise of its authority, the Monetary Board shall: (a) issue rules and regulations it considers necessary for the effective discharge of the responsibilities and exercise of the powers vested upon the Monetary Board and the Bangko Sentral. The rules and regulations issued shall be reported to the President and the Congress within fifteen (15) days from the date of their issuance; (b) direct the management, operations, and administration of the Bangko Sentral, reorganize its personnel, and issue such rules and regulations as it may deem necessary or convenient for this purpose.

The legal units of the Bangko Sentral shall be under the exclusive supervision and control of the Monetary Board; (c) establish a human resource management system which shall govern the selection, hiring, appointment, transfer, promotion, or dismissal of all personnel. Such system shall aim to establish professionalism and excellence at all levels of the Bangko Sentral in accordance with sound principles of management.

A compensation structure, based on job evaluation studies and wage surveys and subject to the Board’s approval, shall be instituted as an integral component of the Bangko Sentral’s human resource development program: Provided, That the Monetary Board shall make its own system conform as closely as possible with the principles provided for under Republic Act No. 6758: Provided, however, That compensation and wage structure of employees whose positions fall under salary grade 19 and below shall be in accordance with the rates prescribed under Republic Act No. 6758.

On the recommendation of the Governor, appoint, fix the remunerations and other emoluments, and remove personnel of the Bangko Sentral, subject to pertinent civil service laws: Provided, That the Monetary Board shall have exclusive and final authority to promote, transfer, assign, or reassign personnel of the Bangko Sentral and these personnel actions are deemed made in the interest of the service and not disciplinary: Provided, further, That the Monetary Board may delegate such authority to the Governor under such guidelines as it may determine.

(d) adopt an annual budget for and authorize such expenditures by the Bangko Sentral as are in the interest of the effective administration and operations of the Bangko Sentral in accordance with applicable laws and regulations; and (e) indemnify its members and other officials of the Bangko Sentral.

Including personnel of the departments performing supervision and examination functions against all costs and expenses reasonably incurred by such persons in connection with any civil or criminal action, suit or proceedings to which he may be, or is, made a party by reason of the performance of his functions or duties, unless he is finally adjudged in such action or proceeding to be liable for negligence or misconduct. In the event of a settlement or compromise, indemnification shall be provided only in connection with such matters covered by the settlement as to which the Bangko Sentral is advised by external counsel that the person to be indemnified did not commit any negligence or misconduct.

The costs and expenses incurred in defending the aforementioned action, suit or proceeding may be paid by the Bangko Sentral in advance of the final disposition of such action, suit or proceeding upon receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of the member, officer, or employee to repay the amount advanced should it ultimately be determined by the Monetary Board that he is not entitled to be indemnified as provided in this subsection. SECTION 16. Responsibility.

— Members of the Monetary Board, officials, examiners, and employees of the Bangko Sentral who willfully violate this Act or who are guilty of negligence, abuses or acts of malfeasance or misfeasance or fail to exercise extraordinary diligence in the performance of his duties shall be held liable for any loss or injury suffered by the Bangko Sentral or other banking institutions as a result of such violation, negligence, abuse, malfeasance, misfeasance or failure to exercise extraordinary diligence.

Similar responsibility shall apply to members, officers, and employees of the Bangko Sentral for: (1) the disclosure of any information of a confidential nature, or any information on the discussions or resolutions of the Monetary Board, or about the confidential operations of the Bangko Sentral, unless the disclosure is in connection with the performance of official functions with the Bangko Sentral, or is with prior authorization of the Monetary Board or the Governor; or (2) the use of such information for personal gain or to the detriment of the Government, the Bangko Sentral or third parties:

Provided, however, That any data or information required to be submitted to the President and/or the Congress, or to be published under the provisions of this Act shall not be considered confidential. ARTICLE III – THE GOVERNOR AND DEPUTY GOVERNORS OF THE BANGKO SENTRAL SECTION 17. Powers and Duties of the Governor. — The Governor shall be the chief executive officer of the Bangko Sentral.

His powers and duties shall be to: (a) prepare the agenda for the meetings of the Monetary Board and to submit for the consideration of the Board the policies and measures which he believes to be necessary to carry out the purposes and provisions of this Act; (b) execute and administer the policies and measures approved by the Monetary Board; (c) direct and supervise the operations and internal administration of the Bangko Sentral.

The Governor may delegate certain of his administrative responsibilities to other officers or may assign specific tasks or responsibilities to any full-time member of the Monetary Board without additional remuneration or allowance whenever he may deem fit or subject to such rules and regulations as the Monetary Board may prescribe; (d) appoint and fix the remunerations and other emoluments of personnel below the rank of a department head in accordance with the position and compensation plans approved by the Monetary Board, as well as to impose disciplinary measures upon personnel of the Bangko Sentral, subject to the provisions of Section 15(c) of this Act:

Provided, That removal of personnel shall be with the approval of the Monetary Board; (e) render opinions, decisions, or rulings, which shall be final and executory until reversed or modified by the Monetary Board, on matters regarding application or enforcement of laws pertaining to institutions supervised by the Bangko Sentral and laws pertaining to quasi-banks, as well as regulations, policies or instructions issued by the Monetary Board, and the implementation thereof; and (f) exercise such other powers as may be vested in him by the Monetary Board. SECTION 18. Representation of the Monetary Board and the Bangko Sentral.

— The Governor of the Bangko Sentral shall be the principal representative of the Monetary Board and of the Bangko Sentral and, in such capacity and in accordance with the instructions of the Monetary Board, he shall be empowered to: (a) represent the Monetary Board and the Bangko Sentral in all dealings with other offices, agencies and instrumentalities of the Government and all other persons or entities, public or private, whether domestic, foreign or international; (b) sign contracts entered into by the Bangko Sentral, notes and securities issued by the Bangko Sentral, all reports, balance sheets, profit and loss statements, correspondence and other documents of the Bangko Sentral.

The signature of the Governor may be in facsimile whenever appropriate; (c) represent the Bangko Sentral, either personally or through counsel, including private counsel, as may be authorized by the Monetary Board, in any legal proceedings, action or specialized legal studies; and (d) delegate his power to represent the Bangko Sentral, as provided in subsections (a), (b) and (c) of this section, to other officers upon his own responsibility: Provided, however, That in order to preserve the integrity and the prestige of his office, the Governor of the Bangko Sentral may choose not to participate in preliminary discussions with any multilateral banking or financial institution on any negotiations for the Government within or outside the Philippines. During the negotiations, he may instead be represented by a permanent negotiator. SECTION 19. Authority of the Governor in Emergencies.

— In case of emergencies where time is insufficient to call a meeting of the Monetary Board, the Governor of the Bangko Sentral, with the concurrence of two (2) other members of the Monetary Board, may decide any matter or take any action within the authority of the Board. The Governor shall submit a report to the President and Congress within seventy-two (72) hours after the action has been taken.

At the soonest possible time, the Governor shall call a meeting of the Monetary Board to submit his action for ratification. SECTION 20. Outside Interests of the Governor and the Full-time Members of the Board. — The Governor of the Bangko Sentral and the full-time members of the Board shall limit their professional activities to those pertaining directly to their positions with the Bangko Sentral.

Accordingly, they may not accept any other employment, whether public or private, remunerated or ad honorem, with the exception of positions in eleemosynary, civic, cultural or religious organizations or whenever, by designation of the President, the Governor or the full-time member is tasked to represent the interest of the Government or other government agencies in matters connected with or affecting the economy or the financial system of the country. SECTION 21. Deputy Governors.

— The Governor of the Bangko Sentral, with the approval of the Monetary Board, shall appoint not more than three (3) Deputy Governors who shall perform duties as may be assigned to them by the Governor and the Board. In the absence of the Governor, a Deputy Governor designated by the Governor shall act as chief executive of the Bangko Sentral and shall exercise the powers and perform the duties of the Governor.

Whenever the Government is unable to attend meetings of government boards or councils in which he is an ex officio member pursuant to provisions of special laws, a Deputy Governor as may be designated by the Governor shall be vested with authority to participate and exercise the right to vote in such meetings. ARTICLE IV – OPERATIONS OF THE BANGKO SENTRAL SECTION 22. Research and Statistics.

— The Bangko Sentral shall prepare data and conduct economic research for the guidance of the Monetary Board in the formulation and implementation of its policies. Such data shall include, among others, forecasts of the balance of payments of the Philippines, statistics on the monthly movement of the monetary aggregates and of prices and other statistical series and economic studies useful for the formulation and analysis of monetary, banking, credit and exchange policies.

SECTION 23. Authority to Obtain Data and Information. — The Bangko Sentral shall have the authority to request from government offices and instrumentalities, or government-owned or controlled corporations, any data which it may require for the proper discharge of its functions and responsibilities. The Bangko Sentral through the Governor or in his absence, a duly authorized representative shall have the power to issue a subpoena for the production of the books and records for the aforesaid purpose. Those supply the bank with data requested or required, shall be subject to punishment for contempt in accordance with the provisions of the Rules of Court.

Data on individual firms, other than banks, gathered by the Department of Economic Research and other departments or units of the Bangko Sentral shall not be made available to any person or entity outside of the Bangko Sentral whether public or private except under order of the court or under such conditions as may be prescribed by the Monetary Board: Provided, however, That the collective data on firms may be released to interested persons or entities: Provided, finally, That in the case of data on banks, the provisions of Section 27 of this Act shall apply. SECTION 24. Training of Technical Personnel.

— The Bangko Sentral shall promote and sponsor the training of technical personnel in the field of money and banking. Toward this end, the Bangko Sentral is hereby authorized to defray the costs of study, at home or abroad, of qualified employees of the Bangko Sentral, of promising university graduates or of any other qualified persons who shall be determined by proper competitive examinations. The Monetary Board shall prescribe rules and regulations to govern the training program of the Bangko Sentral. SECTION 25. Supervision and Examination.

— The Bangko Sentral shall have supervision over, and conduct periodic or special examinations of, banking institutions and quasi-banks, including their subsidiaries and affiliates engaged in allied activities. For purposes of this section, a subsidiary means a corporation more than fifty percent (50%) of the voting stock of which is owned by a bank or quasi-bank and an affiliate means a corporation the voting stock of which, to the extent of fifty percent (50%) or less, is owned by a bank or quasi-bank or which is related or linked to such institution or intermediary through common stockholders or such other factors as may be determined by the Monetary Board.

The department heads and the examiners of the supervising and/or examining departments are hereby authorized to administer oaths to any director, officer, or employee of any institution under their respective supervision or subject to their examination and to compel the presentation of all books, documents, papers or records necessary in their judgment to ascertain the facts relative to the true condition of any institution as well as the books and records of persons and entities relative to or in connection with the operations, activities or transactions of the institution under examination, subject to the provision of existing laws protecting or safeguarding the secrecy or confidentiality of bank deposits as well as investments of private persons, natural or juridical, in debt instruments issued by the Government.

No restraining order or injunction shall be issued by the court enjoining the Bangko Sentral from examining any institution subject to supervision or examination by the Bangko Sentral, unless there is convincing proof that the action of the Bangko Sentral is plainly arbitrary and made in bad faith and the petitioner or plaintiff files with the clerk or judge of the court in which the action is pending a bond executed in favor of the Bangko Sentral, in an amount to be fixed by the court.

The provisions of Rule 58 of the New Rules of Court insofar as they are applicable and not inconsistent with the provisions of this section shall govern the issuance and dissolution of the restraining order or injunction contemplated in this section. SECTION 26. Bank Deposits and Investments.

— Any director, officer or stockholder who, together with his related interest, contracts a loan or any form of financial accommodation from: (1) his bank; or (2) from a bank (a) which is a subsidiary of a bank holding company of which both his bank and the lending bank are subsidiaries or (b) in which a controlling proportion of the shares is owned by the same interest that owns a controlling proportion of the shares of his bank, in excess of five percent (5%) of the capital and surplus of the bank, or in the maximum amount permitted by law, whichever is lower, shall be required by the lending bank to waive the secrecy of his deposits of whatever nature in all banks in the Philippines.

Any information obtained from an examination of his deposits shall be held strictly confidential and may be used by the examiners only in connection with their supervisory and examination responsibility or by the Bangko Sentral in an appropriate legal action it has initiated involving the deposit account. SECTION 27. Prohibitions.

— In addition to the prohibitions found in Republic Act Nos. 3019 and 6713, personnel of the Bangko Sentral are hereby prohibited from: (a) being an officer, director, lawyer or agent, employee, consultant or stockholder, directly or indirectly, of any institution subject to supervision or examination by the Bangko Sentral, except non-stock savings and loan associations and provident funds organized exclusively for employees of the Bangko Sentral, and except as otherwise provided in this Act; (b)

Directly or indirectly requesting or receiving any gift, present or pecuniary or material benefit for himself or another, from any institution subject to supervision or examination by the Bangko Sentral; (c) revealing in any manner, except under orders of the court, the Congress or any government office or agency authorized by law, or under such conditions as may be prescribed by the Monetary Board, information relating to the condition or business of any institution.

This prohibition shall not be held to apply to the giving of information to the Monetary Board or the Governor of the Bangko Sentral, or to any person authorized by either of them, in writing, to receive such information; and (d) borrowing from any institution subject to supervision or examination by the Bangko Sentral shall be prohibited unless said borrowings are adequately secured, fully disclosed to the Monetary Board, and shall be subject to such further rules and regulations as the Monetary Board may prescribe:

Provided, however, That personnel of the supervising and examining departments are prohibited from borrowing from a bank under their supervision or examination. SECTION 28. Examination and Fees. — The supervising and examining department head, personally or by deputy, shall examine the books of every banking institution once in every twelve (12) months, and at such other times as the Monetary Board by an affirmative vote of five (5) members, may deem expedient and to make a report on the same to the Monetary Board: Provided, That there shall be an interval of at least twelve (12) months between annual examinations.

The bank concerned shall afford to the head of the appropriate supervising and examining departments and to his authorized deputies full opportunity to examine its books, cash and available assets and general condition at any time during banking hours when requested to do so by the Bangko Sentral: Provided, however, That none of the reports and other papers relative to such examinations shall be open to inspection by the public except insofar as such publicity is incidental to the proceedings hereinafter authorized or is necessary for the prosecution of violations in connection with the business of such institutions.

Banking and quasi-banking institutions which are subject to examination by the Bangko Sentral shall pay to the Bangko Sentral, within the first thirty (30) days of each year, an annual fee in an amount equal to a percentage as may be prescribed by the Monetary Board of its average total assets during the preceding year as shown on its end-of-month balance sheets, after deducting cash on hand and amounts due from banks, including the Bangko Sentral and banks abroad. SECTION 29. Appointment of Conservator.

— Whenever, on the basis of a report submitted by the appropriate supervising or examining department, the Monetary Board finds that a bank or a quasi-bank is in a state of continuing inability or unwillingness to maintain a condition of liquidity deemed adequate to protect the interest of depositors and creditors, the Monetary Board may appoint a conservator with such powers as the Monetary Board shall deem necessary to take charge of the assets, liabilities, and the management thereof, reorganize the management, collect all monies and debts due said institution, and exercise all powers necessary to restore its viability.

The conservator shall report and be responsible to the Monetary Board and shall have the power to overrule or revoke the actions of the previous management and board of directors of the bank or quasi-bank. The conservator should be competent and knowledgeable in bank operations and management. The conservatorship shall not exceed one (1) year.

The conservator shall receive remuneration to be fixed by the Monetary Board in an amount not to exceed two-thirds (2/3) of the salary of the president of the institution in one (1) year, payable in twelve (12) equal monthly payments: Provided, That, if at any time within one-year period, the conservatorship is terminated on the ground that the institution can operate on its own, the conservator shall receive the balance of the remuneration which he would have received up to the end of the year; but if the conservatorship is terminated on other grounds, the conservator shall not be entitled to such remaining balance.

The Monetary Board may appoint a conservator connected with the Bangko Sentral, in which case he shall not be entitled to receive any remuneration or emolument from the Bangko Sentral during the conservatorship.

The expenses attendant to the conservatorship shall be borne by the bank or quasi-bank concerned. The Monetary Board shall terminate the conservatorship when it is satisfied that the institution can continue to operate on its own and the conservatorship is no longer necessary. The conservatorship shall likewise be terminated should the Monetary Board, on the basis of the report of the conservator or of its own findings, determine that the continuance in business of the institution would involve probable loss to its depositors or creditors, in which case the provisions of Section 30 shall apply. SECTION 30. Proceedings in Receivership and Liquidation.

— Whenever, upon report of the head of the supervising or examining department, the Monetary Board finds that a bank or quasi-bank: (a) is unable to pay its liabilities as they becom