Federal officer

The president is the chief executive of the United States, which makes him the head of the executive branch of the US government. To carry out this duty, he is given control of the employees of the federal executive branch. Another power vested on the President by the Constitution is making various executive and judicial branch appointments. This includes ambassadors, judges of the federal court system, members of the Cabinet, and other federal officers. As President, he may also grant pardons, as is often done just before the end of a presidential term.

In addition, while the president cannot directly introduce legislation, he can play an important role in shaping it. If Congress passes a bill that the president disapproves of, he may veto it; the veto can be overridden only by two-thirds of both houses of Congress. One of the most important of all presidential powers is command of the armed forces as commander-in-chief. The president commands and directs the military and is responsible for planning military strategy.

Along with the armed forces, foreign policy is also directed by the president, including the ability to negotiate treaties, which are ratified with the consent by two-thirds of the Senate. President George W. Bush used the above-mentioned powers many times. As President he dictated foreign policy through his Secretary of State, Condoleezza Rice in matters of Iran, Korea and Russia. As Commander-in-Chief, he used the powers of the executive branch to command and directs the military in Iraq and Afghanistan; being responsible for planning military strategy on both fronts.

Towards the end of his term, he also pardoned prisoners who served life-long sentences. The vast majority of cases come before the Supreme Court by way of petitions for writs of certiorari, commonly referred to as “cert”. The Court may only review “final judgments rendered by the highest court of a state in which a decision could be had” if those judgments involve a question of federal statutory or constitutional law. There are situations where the Court has original jurisdiction, such as when two states have a dispute against each other, or when there is a dispute between the United States and a state.

In such instances, a case is filed with the Supreme Court directly. A cert petition is voted on at a session of the Court called a conference. A conference is a private meeting of the nine Justices by themselves. If four Justices vote to grant the petition, then the case proceeds to the briefing stage; otherwise, the case ends. When the Court grants a cert petition, the case is set for oral argument. At this point, both parties file briefs on the merits of the case.

Each side has half an hour to present its argument, and during that time the Justices can interrupt the advocate and ask questions of their own. At the conclusion of oral argument, the case is submitted for decision. Cases are decided by majority vote of the Justices. The Justices retire to another conference at which the preliminary votes are tallied, and the most senior Justice in the majority assigns the initial draft of the Court’s opinion to a Justice on his or her side.

Drafts of the Court’s opinion, as well as any concurring or dissenting opinions, circulate among the Justices until the Court is prepared to announce the judgment in a particular case. For the California State Court, civil cases move through the following system. First is pre-filing which is preparing the things before filing a lawsuit. Filing starts when filling out papers to start a court action. After filing, one has to wait for the other person to default or answer. The next step is discovery, which starts 30 days after the other person answers.

This is when both parties exchange information and learn about the strengths and weaknesses of their respective cases. If the case cannot be settled, pretrial starts about 90 days before your trial. This is when you get ready for the trial. You must make decisions, like if you need an expert witness, and have settlement conferences with the judge. After pre-trial, the trial starts which may last one day or many months depending on how complicated the case is. After the trial, one can appeal or collect his judgment.