Exxon Valdez

What was "e Exxon Valdez Oil Spi#?!

$e Exxon Valdez was an oil tanker "at gained no%rie& af'r running aground in Prince Wi#iam Sound spi#ing hundreds of "ousands of barrels of crude oil in Alaska .$e size of "e spi# is es(ma'd at 40,900 % 120,000)m3 or 257,000 % 750,000 barrels.In 1989, "e Exxon Valdez oil spi# was lis'd as "e 54" largest spi# in his%ry.At "e (me of "e spi#, Exxon Valdez was employed % *ansport crude oil +om "e Alyeska consor(um,s pipeline 'rminal in Valdez, Alaska, % "e lower 48 sta's of "e Uni'd Sta's.! 1 EXXON VALDEZ - THE DEVASTATING OIL SPILL

$e Oil Spi#! On March 24, 1989, "e Exxon Valdez ran aground in nor"ern Prince Wi#iam Sound, spi#ing 42 mi#ion li*es of crude oil and contamina(ng 1,990 kilome*es of shoreline.Some 2,000 sea o-ers, 302 harbour seals and about 250,000 seabirds died in "e days immedia'ly fo#owing "e spi#.!

$e Exxon Valdez oil spi# occurred in Prince Wi#iam Sound, Alaska, on March 24, 1989, when Exxon Valdez was bound for Long Beach, California, s*uck Prince Wi#iam Sound,s Bligh Reef at 12:04 a.m. local (me and spi#ed 260,000 % 750,000 barrels .41,000 % 119,000)m3/ of crude oil over "e next few days. It is considered % be one of "e most devasta(ng human-caused environmental disas'rs. $e Valdez spi# was "e largest ever in US wa'rs un(l "e 2010 Deepwa'r Horizon oil spi#, in 'rms of volume released.!

Effects of The Oil Spill

Economic Impact on the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill :-!

•Fisheries for salmon, herring, crab, shrimp, rock0sh and sable0sh were closed, wi" some shrimp and salmon commercial 0sheries remaining closed "rough 1990. !

•. Over 2,000 Alaskan Na(ve Americans and 13,000 o"er subsis'nce permit holders lost "e

source of "eir food.!

!•$e %urism indus*y immedia'ly lost over 26,000 jobs and more "an $2.4 bi#ion in sales.Passive use cost "e sta' $2.8 bi#ion, and it %o has never 1#y recovered since vaca(oners s(# "ink of "e area as contamina'd.!

2 EXXON VALDEZ - THE DEVASTATING OIL SPILL

•Now, 20 years af'r "e spi#, about 20 acres of Prince Wi#iam Sound shoreline are s(# contamina'd wi" oil. Two species have never come back, 'n species haven,t qui' come back,  and 0ve are unknown. Un(l a# species recover, "e economy "at depends upon "em cannot 1#y recover, ei"er.!!

Environmental Impact on the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill :-

•About 250,000 sea birds died, along wi" 22 ki#er whales, 2,800 sea o-ers, 300 harbour seals, and un%ld numbers of 0sh eggs.!

•Consequently, for "e two pods of whales living along "e sou"west Alaskan coast each pod

lost about

40% of "eir

members

directly

fo#owing "e

spi#. !

•$ree

years la'r,

"e dea"

%#

es(ma's for

sea birds

increased

+om

250,000 %

approxima'ly 435,000.!

•$e spi# contamina'd more "an 1,200 miles of Alaska,s shoreline wi" lots of oil.!

•According % Douglas Wolfe, head of "e Bioe2ects Assessment Branch of "e Na(onal

Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis*a(on,s Na(onal Ocean Service, by May 1st, 1989, 20% of "e %xic compounds in "e oil had evapora'd in% "e atmosphere, and 20- 25% of "e oil had dispersed in% "e ocean and was rapidly degraded "rough natural processes.!

3

EXXON VALDEZ - THE DEVASTATING OIL SPILL

References

1.3Ciencia Marina Y O*os Asun%s.3 Ciencia Marina Y O*os Asun%s RSS. N.p.,n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2014. <h-p://www.madrimasd.org/blogs/ciencia_marina/2013/12/12/133318>.!

2.3E2ect of Exxon Valdez Oil Spi# on "e Economy.3 About.com US Economy.

N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2014. <h-p://useconomy.about.com/od/suppl1/p/

Exxon_Valdez_Oil_Spi#_Economic_Impact.htm>.!

3.3Environmental E2ects of Exxon Valdez Spi# S(# Being Felt.3 Scien(0c

American Global RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2014. <h-p://

www.scien(0camerican.com/ar(cle/environmental-e2ects-of/>.!

4.3Exxon Valdez Oil Spi#.3 Wikipedia. Wikimedia Founda(on, 02 Sept. 2014. Web.

09 Feb. 2014. <h-p://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exxon_Valdez_oil_spi#>.!

5.3Exxon Valdez.3 Wikipedia. Wikimedia Founda(on, 02 Nov. 2014. Web. 12 Feb.

2014. <h-p://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exxon_Valdez>.!6.3Ques(ons and Answers.3 Oil Spi# Facts. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Feb. 2014. <h-p://www.evostc.sta'.ak.us/index.cfm?FA=facts.QA>.!