Explain these words phrases: Spheres of Influence

A sphere of influence is the area in which another powers or countries wishes to exert its influence so that no hostile government or ideology can take root there. For example, the United States of America regards Central America as coming within its sphere of influence. During the 1980s the US tried to overthrw the communist Sandinista regime in Nicaragua. Another example is before the fall of the USSR. Before its fall in 1991, the it regarded Eastern Europe as its sphere of influence, which is why it felt justified in invading Czecholovakia in 1968 when that country appeared to be adopting more liberal policies. Singapore could also be regarded waithin the English sphere of influence because we have adapted their form of government and law.

Monopoly

Monopoly is the exclusive control of something. In econmics, it refers to the exclusive control of a commodity or servie ina given market-which leads to higher prices for the consumer. In some countrys monopolies are not common because of their anti-trust laws. An example would be the United States of America. Monopoly also refers to an exclusive privilege, granted by the state or country, of engaging in a particular business or providing a service. 

In the 17th century, the Dutch took control of Malaka and controlled the spice trade in Java. The Dutch made sure that other European powers could not trade in the Malay Archipelago and only allowed the Europeans trade at Batavia in Java. Thus, they enjoyed a trade monopoly in the Malay Archipelago.

Balance of Power

Balance of power is the concept that world peace is best served when no one power in any region gains sufficient military strength to dominate other states in that region. It was first used to describe European statecraft in the 19th century. Keeping the balance of power in Europe was a cornerstone of British diplomacy-the concept being that if one power or coalition of powers got too strong, the weaker states would make an alliance to combat it.

Alliances therefore is not about ideology but of simple common sense, they would continually shift to maintain the balance of power. Then a balance will be maintained to prevent wars. Balance of power politics was a factor why the U.S. decided to normalize relations with Vietnam. This was because a strong Vietnam, it is believed to act as a test on the power of China in the region.

Most Favoured Nation Treatment

Most favoured nation treatment means that every time a member state improves the benefits that it gives to one trading partner, it has to give the same "best" treatment to all other WTO members, so that they will remain equal. Countries are to grant equal treatment, to goods and services from all WTO members. They cannot show favouritism or discrimination. However some exceptions are allowed.

For example, countries within a region can set up a free trade agreement that does not apply to goods from outside the group. A free trade agreement is an agreement to trade goods stated in the agreement freely without paying tax to the state. A country can also raise barriers against products from specific countries that are considered to be traded unfairly. And in services, countries are allowed, in limited circumstances, to discriminate. But the agreements only permit these exceptions under very strict conditions.

Extraterritorial Rights

Extraterritorial rights are the privilege of immunity from local law enforcement enjoyed by certain aliens. Although physically present upon the territory of a foreign nation, those aliens possessing extraterritorial rights are considered by customary international law or treaty to be under the legal jurisdiction of their home country.

This immunity from law enforcement is reciprocal between countries and is generally provided for visiting heads of state, those in the diplomatic services of foreign nations and their families, and officials of the United Nations. Generally such persons are exempt from both civil and criminal action; they may not be sued or arrested. Their property and residences are inviolable, and they are usually exempt from both personal and property taxes.

While extraterritorial rights insures that a diplomat will not be prosecuted for illegal behaviour, it is emphasized that he is expected to adhere to the laws of the land in which he is serving. Any major transgressions may result not only in a formal complaint to his government but possibly in a demand for his expulsion. Extraterritorial rights also extend to public vessels in foreign territorial waterways and ports. With the exception of the right of a state to regulate navigation within its own waters, a foreign public ship is entirely exempt from local jurisdiction. A private ship, on the other hand, is subject to local laws.

Extraterritorial rights was in the past often granted to foreigners not occupying diplomatic positions. After the conques of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, extraterritorial rights were bestowed as a courtesy upon several European states, notably Venice and Genoa. In the 19th century. Western powers, often through coercion, secured unilateral extraterritorial rights for their citizens in China, Egypt, Japan, Morocco, Persia, Siam, and Turkey in the belief that these "uncivilized states were incapable of establishing justice. Consequently the Western consul was assigned to handle all civil and criminal cases involving his countrymen.

Extraterritorial rights of this type was strongly resented as an infringement of sovereignty and was abolished in Japan in 1899, in Turkey in 1923, and in Egypt in 1949. In China opposition to extraterritorial rights was but one phase of resistance to foreign control, which included the treaty port system and territorial concessions in the major cities. In 1924 the USSR voluntarily abandoned its privileges in China, as did the United States and Great Britain in 1943. Italy and Japan lost their special status during World War II because they were enemies of China. In 1946, when France abandoned its privileges, nondiplomatic extraterritorial rights in China came to an end.

Treaty

A treaty is an international law, formal agreement between two different independent states or organizations of state. It may cover issues including the regulations of trade, the making of peace, or the forming of military alliances.  Treaties can be classified into three categories. Political treaties deal with (among other things) alliances, war, cessions of territory, and rectification of boundaries. Commercial treaties may govern fisheries, navigation, tariffs, and monetary exchange. Legal treaties concern extradition of criminals, patent and copyright protection, and the like.

Treaties were designed to regularize the contact of nations and are the source of most international law. Treaties have existed ever since states came to existence. Records survive of Mesopotamian treaties dating before 3000 B.C., and in the Old Testament many treaties were mentioned.