European Court of Justice US

“International law is a primary concern of the United Nations. The mandate for the activities in this field emanates from the Charter of the United Nations, which, in its Preamble, sets the goal "to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained". (http://www. un. org/Depts/dhl/resguide/specil. htm) International Court of Justice International Court of Justice (ICJ) is one of the important organizations of the United Nations; its main work is to provide justice and give opinions accordingly as is evident from the name.

It is working since 1946. Its decisions / opinions are published as well as posted on the official website of International Court of Justice regularly. Its reports are also presented to the General Assembly of United Nations. Each and every case is documented including proceedings, written pleadings, oral arguments, and correspondence and is made public as well. Ad Hoc International Criminal Tribunals After being shocked by atrocities committed in both the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, the International Community under the manifesto of United Nations Security Council established two ad hoc international criminal tribunals to provide justice.

Tribunal for Yugoslavia was established in 1993 to deal the cases of war crimes, human rights crimes and genocide. It dealt cases after 1991. Its office is in Hague (Netherlands). The purpose of formation of Tribunal of Rwanda was also the same as of Yugoslavia like dealing the cases of war crimes, human rights crimes and genocide. Under the manifesto of United Nations it started dealing the cases committed in the complete year of 1994. Its office is located in Arusha (Tanzania). It has also an appeal court which is situated in Hague (Netherlands)

“The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda has jurisdiction to prosecute people accused of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, committed in Rwanda between 1 January and 31 December 1994. The trial court for the Tribunal is located in Arusha, Tanzania, the appeals court is located in The Hague and the Deputy Prosecutor is located in Kigali, Rwanda”. Both the Tribunals were formed under the resolution of the United States and upon the request of Amnesty International cooperation with these Tribunals were stresses for the assurance of justice.

(http://web. amnesty. org/pages/ict-index-eng) European Court of Justice For the settlement of international agreements / disputes between the parties of European Union, Judicial branch of the European Union (EU) was established in 1958 in Luxembourg. Panel consists of 25 judges, one judge from each member state with the tenure of 6 years. 8 Advocates Generals give reasons / opinions to assist the ECJ for helping to make decisions. Judges and Advocates General of ECJ are appointed who meets the qualification of highest national courts in their member states.

It is made sure that their independence is beyond doubts, political and religion favor. The governments of the member states appoint the Judges and Advocate General. ECJ makes sure that the European Law is interpreted and levied across the EU with the help of various legal actions. Hague Conferences In the late 19th century after realizing the horrible losses of the world wars 1 & 2 and to avoid the risk of world wars in the future the big nations realized the need of gathering at international level.

Conference known as Hague Conference were called for the possible efforts to avoid wars and prevailing of peace in the world. First Hague Conference was called by Russia and the Netherlands for the limitation of warfare and arms limitations and was attended by 26 countries and several approved conventions were approved especially use of asphyxiating gases were prohibited. Second Hague Conference was also called by Russia and was attended by 46 countries in 1907. Main achievement of the Conference was to establish World Court but the United States failed to comply.

Third Hague Conference was called but cancelled due to World War 1. These conferences are trendsetter for achieving the desired result of establishing peace and avoiding wars. 1992 Rio Conference “This is a global program that committed 118 countries to environmental restoration, preservation and social development. Their aims are to meet the challenge of global warming, pollution, biodiversity and the inter-related social problems of poverty, health and population”.

The said conference was held at Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992, with the main emphasis on poverty, health and rapid population growth especially in the developing countries. 27 principles were approved for the betterment of human being and mankind like, good health of human being in accordance with nature, use of their available all resources for the betterment of states people within their jurisdiction, protection and development of environment needs, mitigate the gap between have and have not (help the needy people of the world), protection of environment and eradication of pollution.

Controlling of rapid population growth in the countries especially in developing countries where population is increasing at alarming rate and swallowing the resources of world very quickly. (http://www. pdhre. org/conferences/rio. html) New International Economic Order (NIEO) In the sixth special session of the General Assembly held between April-May 1974 a declaration was adopted along with a program of action for the establishment of new international economic order, which is also called fundamental change in the international economic order.

The need of such declaration was felt when OPEC countries cut down the oil supply of other countries including European counties and USA owning to conflict with Israel of the Arab league. It was demanded that the industrial countries should make adjustment in their policies and economies so that poorer countries may be benefited so that they can control their own resources.

Developed countries were asked to link the prices of exports of developing countries to the prices of imports from developed countries. The equitable relationship between the prices of raw materials, basic commodities, food, manufactured / un-manufactured goods and capital equipment imported by them. Transfer of technology and development of agriculture of the developing countries. Ensure the flow of financial resources to the developing countries on concessionary basis.