European Commission

EU integration process initiated in 1950s; consequence of founding member states during aftermath of WWII. – > Member-states want peace economic stability+ security CRITICISMS= failed to deliver economic growth+ global competition – highly institutionalized=qualified majority voting consensus, overseen by a bureaucracy, elected co-legislative, judicial system -EU also about welfare-related issues; welfare state European construct DEF. ->EU family of liberal-democratic countries, acting collectively through an institutionalized system of decision-making. > Joining members agree to EU treaties, legislation, norms, shared values(democracy/humanrights etc. ) > 28 member states, + 500 million people >.

Hybrid international organization+ state – EU institutions= > The commission, Parliament, Council, Courts, European Council(defines general political direction+priorities/own president), European Central Bank Criteria to join the EU= >European State >Democratic > Working market economies >Take on EU treaties, legislation, norms ^—Decided in 1993 in Copenhagen, European Council “Copenhagen Criteria” Joiners see EU has anchor supporting Political+ economic transitions; gateway to belong to Europe -EU has own budget, “ EU budget”, cannot tax citizens directly.

Receives money from customs duties, contributions at border, national contributions(1% gross national product) -> budget negotiated for =total economic activity months or years for multi-annual periods -> most important function is making + management of European policies Five modes of European Decision making= 1. Community method=involves a commission legislative initiative being agreed by the council+ European parliament 2. EU regulatory mode 3. EU distributional mode 4. Policy coordination mode 5. Intensive trans-governmentalism -> policy emerges as interaction between groups i. e. = ^–European commission/Parliament/Council.

^–Legislation mode using “ Ordinary Legislative Procedure” > Council->Parliament, each two successive readings of proposals drafted by Commission=to decide legislation -Some say EU has “ Democratic Deficit”= Loss of democracy, caused by the transfer of powers to the European Institutions + Member state executive; implies parliaments lose out -European Citizenship= > Right to move+reside freely in union >right to vote for or be a candidate at municipal+ European parliament elections in state of residence > right to petition Parliament > right to diplomatic+ consular protection > Charter of Fundamental rights.

European integration= political issue, public negativity, distrust Chapter 2 Notes: -WWII catalyst for new unity proposals – Glacial International political climate, East+ West Split -North Atlantic Treaty Organization(NATO)1949 -Council of Europe 1949/Organization for European Economic Cooperation 1948 -European Coal+Steel Community 1951-first step to yield a degree of state sovereignty to supranational authority -1957 Treaty of Rome – European Economic Community ( 6 countries, Germany-France- Holland-Belgium-Italy-Luxembourg) ^–Common Market, approximate national economic policies, develop common policies.

Specifically-> agriculture ,customs union The Evolution of the European Union( September 9/14) Europe 1900-1945 Political Order in 1900 -> Series of empires- British/French/Ottomans/Russia/Austro-Hungary -> Simmering instability ->Caught up in a series of alliances ex. Germans + Austrians/British + French+Russia -> Sets Europe up for confrontation in 1914 ->WWI and the collapse of European global hegemony ( spark is the assassination of arch duke Franz Ferdinand from Austria/Hungary by Serbian nationals- Austria declares war on Serbia, Russia backs Serbia, Germany backs Austria) WWI Consequences.

>Germany + Austria lose, have to pay reparations, lose territory, economy- Sets up strain- Impoverishment > Europe becomes continent of smaller countries/not empires > Radical ideas emerge-Communism, Fascism, which gain credence from economic problems, people are looking for solution > Russian revolution > Economic collapse in Germany directly correlated with rise in Fascism Economic crisis, capitalism strikes globally in 1930s, Britain+ depression > France, struggling too- much uncertainty on how to solve this problem, people begin to doubt democracy+ capitalism > As a result, communist + Fascist groups+ movements gain popularity ex.

General Franco- Spain, Mussolini- Italy, Lenin+ Stalin- Russia. WWII+ Consequences > Hilter comes to power incrementally, Britain+ France could have stepped in but did not want war, Did not have military power to do so. ^– Appease Germany by giving them the Sudetenland >Much more global war, not just centered on European Continent > Aftermath of war, extreme loss really convinced together for harmony- Since 1945 no wars had happened between EU states, So in that sense EU is a success. > Cold War is a result of the end of WWII, Russia gains control over Eastern Europe + Western Countries over West.

Eventually boils down to U. S. vs Russia-> Europe divided by Iron Curtain/Two ideologies > Britain + France continue to decline, colonies gain independence Immediate Post-War ‘ Period’ -Economic devastation -Political instability – Cold War Post War Recovery – Economic Assistance : the Marshall Plan ^– U. S. gives economic assistance to Europe ^– Want to ensure a democratic bastion remains in Europe ^– Assistance however was manufactured in U. S. , so U. S. economy gained too Welfare state and the Keynesian consensus -> john maynard Keynes makes argument that economies can’t just be left to regulate themselves, need mild form of government intervention, governments should invest in bad times. ->

Welfare state emerges- government provides services for citizens ex. Healthcare/education -> government creates “ Iron Triangle” : government?? Business?? Labour ^– these groups need to work together according to Keynes ^– became consensus model in Europe ^– these ideas get Europe out of Crisis in WWII – Neo-corporatism -Post- War Eastern Europe ^– eastern Europe have communism forced upon them by Soviet Union, under soviet control – eastern Europe feels betrayed by W. Europe.