One view for policemen accepting gratuities is that they could be impartial when dealing with people since they may give special consideration to those giving gratuities to them, so, the policemen may loose the confidence of the public regarding their impartiality and this may start corruption. And many find it unethical that policemen accept any kind of gratuities because their type of profession is service-based for all without any bias to anyone or to someone. Besides, the policemen need no perks or rewards to make a job well done.
It is their responsibility to make their jobs well done. Another view would be that it is fine to take gratuities when the policemen are doing great job and that it doesn’t mean that when policemen accept gratuities they are corrupt or will become impartial in favor to those who give them gratuities. 2. First, punishment intimidates those who are about to commit an offense. When the offender is aware of the punishment he could suffer when he does the offense, he becomes intimidated and will hesitate to perform his plan, thus, punishment becomes good for prevention.
Second, punishment provides incapacitation so that the offender will not have the capacity to perform the same offense as he had done before. Keeping one offender down can prevent many offenses. The third would be rehabilitation. This will allow the offender to have a different attitude towards committing an offense so he will not do it again. Part B 1. The utilitarian ethical system defines an action ethical only if it will give a good outcome and the good outcome is that which serves the satisfaction or happiness of the majority or multitude, so, minority motives aren’t considered under the utilitarian ethical system.
2. Rule utilitarianism follows rules that will generate the best or the greatest good for many and for rule utilitarianisms, the good and moral actions are those which follow the rules. Act utilitarianism focuses on the action that contributed to the greatest good whether it is according to the law or not. 3. Restorative justice concerns both the offender and the victim so for this theory of justice, peace-making plays a huge role. In restorative justice, the offender is being helped to rehabilitate and the victim may participate on this rehabilitation and together repair the harm.
4. The lawyer must do his best to convince the client not to lie or he will go to the judge and disclose the plan of the client to testify untruthfully. This may lead to a case of perjury against the client. However, the lawyer has the responsibility to prevent this perjury so he really must stop the plan of the client to lie. 5. Distributive justice is focused on the just or fair distribution or allocation of goods to the public. An example would be making sure that everyone gets benefits from the government or according to the law without any reference to socio-economic status.
6. Ethical formalism suggests that what is ethical is that which is logical or which follows universal law or principle, never mind the outcome of an action. 7. The role of a defense attorney would be to defend the accused whether the client pleads guilty or not and help the client dismiss the case. If the accused admitted his involvement on a crime, the defense attorney would help his client get a lighter punishment. 8. One reason for the existence of police subculture is that policemen understand fellow policemen very well unlike any other else.
The policemen think that the public do not trust them so they have formed a subculture that would help them get much understanding from fellow policemen. Another reason is that there exist many differences among policemen and gender plays a huge role on this because policemen may see policewomen inferior to their strength and skills. Another reason would be that the way the police work may be a little different than how the public should see it so when the police bend the rules just to fight crimes; they know they can keep it among themselves.
The prosecutor isn’t allowed to disclose any information or any kind of discussion off-court so communication with the judge isn’t wise during an open case. 10. One would be to be a helpful agent which can cause many questions like how far should a probation officer go to help and does that mean that the offender owe the probation officer? Another would be the probation officer as an “enforcer of legal condition” because there are times when the probation officers find it difficult to perform his job when the person under probation is a relative or someone he knew.