Environmental Health Summary

There are loads of different ways that we as humans affect the world and the environment we live in. Some things that we do can not only change and affect the environment but can also affect our health. Urbanisation is caused by people inhabiting the cities and towns moving away from rural areas. This can be a problem because it causes Overcrowding, waste accumulation, transport systems. Overcrowding is where too many people are in the same area. This can cause diseases like colds to spread because of cross infection. When there are too many people in one place they all contribute to waste.

Waste can attract pests which can carry and spread diseases. Transport problems in urban areas can cause stress. For example if people are unaware of their bus numbers or if the bus is late, they can become stressed. Transport systems can also cause accidents and make people physical disabled. Another human activity is intensified agriculture. This is when farmers have to produce loads of food in a small area and small amount of time. They use pesticides which could end up in food if it is not cleaned before consumption. This could affect human health or even poison them. Intensified agriculture can also destruct wildlife habitats.

This can happen because farmers need more land to make more crops. They end up killing the homes for many wild life creatures. Monoculture is also an environmental problem. This is because the soil losses its fertility and recovery time. This makes it difficult to grow other crops. This can lead to hungry people and a bad season for the farmer. Pollution is a really big problem there are four different types of pollution air, water, land, and noise. They affect are health in different ways. Air pollution is caused from CO2 carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a waste product from burning fossil fuels like oil and coal.

As most cars run off petrol you can understand why CO2 emissions are an evolving problem. Air pollution can affect our health is they are not very good to breathe in. Gasses like carbon monoxide take oxygen away from our blood cells which can be fatal. People who live in built up urbanised areas where there is more traffic and more vehicles and more people who smoke can develop lung caner from breathing in dangerous fumes. Land pollution affect our health too. What is land pollution? Land pollution is things like land fills and littering and dumping. But how does this affect our health.

When people chuck things away that can not be recycled they end up in a land fill. A land fill is a massive whole in the ground which is just filled with rubbish. The rubbish takes ages to rot away and produces methane gas which contributes to air pollution Water pollution is when water is contaminated for example oil spills into the sea. This would kill sea animals and fish which is food for humans. This would make people malnutrition if they miss fish protein. Noise pollution is caused by factories, transport systems and people. This can cause people stress and make people lose sleep which can cause health problems.

Loud noises can also damage your hearing. Activity 2 The environmental change discussed here is caused pollution. The first affect is CO2 problems and how it affects the ozone layer which also affects human health. Why is CO2 such a problem for the environment and our health? So we all produce CO2 it is a natural gas that comes out of human animals and automobiles. What happens is this gas doesn’t leave the atmosphere very well and it damages the ozone layer which is a layer in the atmosphere that keeps dangerous rays of light from entering earth’s atmosphere.

So light and heat travels from the sun to the earth but this heat can not escape because of the thick layer of carbon dioxide and a few other gases that has built up over time. This makes the earths temperature rise. How does this affect our health? Well as the ozone layer is slightly damaged this lets dangerous UV rays into the atmosphere which is bad for our skin and can make our skin develop such diseases like skin cancer. And with the earth warming up the ice caps melt this can lead to flooding which means less land. Less land means fewer animals and places to grow crops. This means less food for us and over all has a domino affect.

Another form of pollution is cigarette smoke. Cigarettes alone contain dangerous chemicals that seriously can damage your health and others around you. That’s why from the first of July in 2007 it was illegal to smoke in public areas like pubs clubs and hotels. Smoking can cause lung disease and different types of cancers as well as heart diseases. Mentally, smoking can affect how you think and cause stress. How other types of pollution affect our health? What else is land pollution? Land pollution can be littering. Littering is when people just throw their rubbish on the floor.

If people litter not only does it make the place look worst it can attract animals such as rats. Rats carry germs and diseases which can affect human health. Weil’s disease is a form of a bacterial infection that affects human beings. Symptoms include flu like fever, Headaches, Vomiting. Some extreme cases can make liver and kidneys fail. Water pollution what is water pollution? Water pollution is where things are either purposely or accidentally putt into water it can also happen naturally. Dirty water can give humans ecoli and other bacterial diseases which may cause diarrhoea.

Also contaminated water can not be used to water farms and there for food production will go down. This will affect people’s health because they will not have enough to eat. Activity 3 Strategies that have been used to reduce the impact of human activities Over time allot of things have been done to help reduce the impact of things such as pollution, deforestation, landfills. Programs have been put into practice to try and overcome these problems. Strategies Electric cars How do electric cars help the environment? Electric cars do not give off CO2 emissions this means the waster product regular cars give off doesn’t exist.

This means no air pollution from cars. As well in the past when oil pipes transporting oil have broken it has polluted the see if we where no longer relying on oil to fuel are car we wouldn’t have to use pipe lines like that anymore. Recycling Recycling has been used for over centuries. It become more popular again in the 1980’s after land filing was becoming a concerning problem. Today the government encourage everyone to recycle. They give out all the necessary bins and bags to make it easier to recycle. Congestion chargers Congestion chargers in big cities are a way to try and cut down traffic and reduce air pollution.

By charging people to use their car and making it cheaper to use public transport people will be more likely to choose that option. Sustainable development wind turbine, solar panels Sustainable energy is a way to get energy by not burning fossil fuels the only thing is these energy types can be slower and harder to get high amounts of energy. These days’ people can buy things such a solar panels easily. And they are different types of schemes where if you produce your own electricity the government give you a check back for what you sell to the electrical grid. This encourages people because they save money.

There are also allot of wind farms though out the United Kingdom being made for more sustainable energy. Picking up dog poo. Dog poo is dangerous as it has germs in the substance that can make humans blind. By not picking up your dogs dog poo it is land pollution. The government has made it so in most parks there is dog poo bins and pick up dog poo signs on the floor. By not picking up dog poo you get an expensive fine if not caught which prompts dog owners to pick it up. Agenda 21 is guidelines and strategies to overcome things such as overcrowding, pollution and poverty in developing countries.

Agenda 21 started in 1992 at the earth summit in Rio and signed by 179 heads of state and government. Part of agenda 21 is something called local agenda 21 “Local Agenda 21 (LA21) has been defined as ‘the process of developing local policies for sustainable development and building partnerships between local authorities and other sectors to implement them”. Local agenda 21 is every part of the earth and about developing their area. Making places more sustainable by doing such things as regulating pollution and what people chuck away. Making chargers in big cities, developing new sustainable energy resources like hydrogen and more wind farms.

Each place on the earth has there own local agenda 21 to make guidelines to help the environment and sustainable energy. Green peace is a non profit company dedicated to helping the environment and wild life. What green peace does? Green peace puts pressure on the government and different organisation to make certain things change. Green peace has advice on their website to help people who are looking to really help the environment and get involved. “We defend the natural world and promote peace by investigating, exposing and confronting environmental abuse, and championing environmentally responsible solutions”

PETA Peta is a company like green peace but dedicated to helping animals and there habitats environment. They have big main stream advertisements in America to promote that killing animals for fur is wrong. Peta help the environment by organising things such as clean up projects. For example when BP had the massive oil spill Peta where there to help all the animals that where dying and help clean up the area. The People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) Foundation is a UK-based charity dedicated to establishing and protecting the rights of all animals.

Like humans, animals are capable of suffering and have interests in leading their own lives; therefore, they are not ours to use – for food, clothing, entertainment, experimentation or any other reason. The world health organisation develops strategies to overcome pollution and overcrowding urbanisation. They do loads of research to help figure out what are the effects of overcrowding and pollution and see ways we can overcome the different types of pollution. “09 January 2013 — Mercury and its compounds comprise one of the top ten groups of chemicals of major public health concern according to WHO.

WHO has identified these chemicals as highly hazardous, and more action is needed to prevent adverse health impacts. Mercury is a naturally occurring element that is found in air, water and soil. Mercury is a known toxic substance that is harmful to humans, especially pregnant women, infants and children”. Taken from the WHO website. Produced from the WHO website. Who produce statistics like this map to show where pollution is worst and then make strategies like waster control. Who also spread awareness alerting people of the dangers of doing certain things. •Air Quality Standards Regulations 2007

This act makes sure pollution has to stay to a certain level if it reaches over that level it could become dangerous to breather in the air. In certain places of the world the air is so toxic that cancer levels are higher. It is also important to find new ways to make energy with out causing bad toxic pollution would could be damaging to human health. •Road Traffic Act 1988 This act covers the congestion charges in big cities. The congestion charge goes on how badly you car emits CO2 If your car has a big powerful engine and is heavy you will be charged more on your congestion charge. •The Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulations 1995

Why is it important to make sure food is clean and prepared well? If food isn’t clean and safe to eat this could cause diseases. Diseases in over populated areas for example a shanty town causes even more diseases if there is no sewage systems. In over populated crowed urbanised areas diseases can spread quicker and this can cause an epidemic. •Environmental Protection Act 1990 This act is about protecting the environment when the environment is damaged it can reflect human health. If there is a lot of pollution then people are more likely to become ill either from what they breathe in or the water they drink.