Australia is situated in the eastern part of the Southern Hemisphere. Australia is an island continent lying between the Indian Ocean on the west and Pacific Ocean on the east. It is the sixth largest country and the smallest continent. HISTORY James Cook discovered Australia on the 20th of April 1770. The original inhabitants of Australia were people called Aborigines. This name they gained from British people in 1788. The each group of Aborigines had its land and language. They travelled to different parts of their land to find food and water, they ate plants and fruits and caught animals and fish.
After 1788 their life suddenly began to change. Life was very difficult for the Aborigines: they couldn’t own land, couldn’t get jobs, their children couldn’t go to school with white children. Nowadays it is better. GOVERNMENT The official title is the Commonwealth of Australia and it is a British dominion. It is federal state with a Governor General at its head. The governor is a deputy to the British queen Elisabeth II. The head of government is the Prime Minister. – The capital is Canberra. Australia consists of 6 states and 3 territories: – Western Australia – the capital is Perth – South Australia – the capital is Adelaide.
– Queensland – the capital is Brisbane – New South Wales – the capital is Sydney (the biggest city) – Victoria – the capital is Melbourne – Tasmania – the capital is Hobart Territories: 1. Northern Territory – the capital is Darwin 2. Australian Capital Territory – the capital is Canberra POPULATION Country isn’t densely populated. There are only about 16 million inhabitants. The inhabitants are mostly of British origin. The density is one of the lowest in the world, only two people to one square kilometre. Population is concentrated especially along the south – east coast. The tropical northern part is practically uninhabited.
GEOGRAPHY – DESERTS There are two big deserts: the Great Sand Desert and the Victoria Desert – RIVERS Country has only two big rivers: the Murray and the Darling – LAKES There are about 760 lakes. There are three large lakes: Eyre, Torrent, and Gardner – MOUNTAINS Australia has one big mountain range, the Australian Alps. The highest peak is Mont Kosciusko, it is 2 228 meters high. The south – east is covered with forest of eucalyptus and other evergreen trees. – CLIMATE It has a warm climate with plenty of sunshine – the average temperature in January (summer) is 24 degrees above zero and in July (winter) it is 8 degrees above zero.
The interior of Australia is also called „the outback“. This part has extremely hot and dry climate. There is little rainfall there. The south – east has pleasant type of climate. – ANIMALS The typical Australia’s animals are: kangaroos, koalas, platypus, and seal. These peculiar animals we cannot find elsewhere. INDUSTRY – EXPORT The main Australian exports are: wool (sheep breeding ), beef, mutton, wheat, and minerals. Australia is rich in gold, silver, copper, zinc and iron. – MAIN INDUSTRIES Mining, food industry, textile industry, chemical industry, car industry, ship industry…
Only 7% of the population work in agriculture, 30% in industry and trade and 33% in services. – MAIN TRADING PARTNERS Among the main trading partners belong: Japan, USA, Great Britain. CURRENCY Currency used in Australia is Australian Dollar. NEW ZEALAND GOVERNMENT New Zealand is a democratic country with its own parliament. It is part of British Commonwealth. The official head of state is Elizabeth II, the queen of England, Scotland and Wales. New Zealand was the first country in the world to give the vote to woman in 1893, to have old age pensions for retirement people and the eight-hour working day. GEOGRAPHY.
This country is bigger in size than Great Britain. New Zealand is situated in the Pacific Ocean about 2000 km from Australia. It consists of two large islands plus other smaller islands. – There are two main islands: 1. The North Island – with a warm climate and many volcanic activity 2. The South Island – it is cooler and has got a higher rainfall. There are the Southern Alps with Mount Cook (3754 m) the highest mountain in New Zealand. The country is mostly mountainous. New Zealand’s climate is quite pleasant. There is a lot of sun and it often rains there. Summers are not too hot (+28°C) and winters are mild (+8°C).
ECONOMY New Zealand has got some industry – iron, steel, machinery and motor vehicle production but agriculture is more important. The agriculture of New Zealand is specialized in cattle raising and sheep farming. The cattle can be outside even during winter, thanks to the mild climate. The main industry is food processing. Wool, fruit and vegetables are important agricultural products. POPULATION There are 3,6 million people in the country. Over 80% of people are European (mainly British) origin. Around 9% of the population is Maoris – original inhabitants. The two official languages are English and Maori.
CITIES – Wellington(400,000 people) is the capital. – Auckland is the largest city with 800,000 people. Auckland? s nickname is “ the city of sails” because it has more boats than anywhere else in the world. WILDLIFE New Zealand has got some unique animals and plants. The tuatara is a reptile that has survived from the era of the dinosaurs. The weta is the largest and heaviest insect in the world and the kiwi (the national symbol of New Zealand) is a large bird that cannot fly. LIFESTYLE New Zealanders, who are also known as “ Kiwis”, are relaxed people who love the outdoor life.
It is not surprising that New Zealand is successful at many sports. Its national sport is rugby. Canada HISTORY Indians and Eskimos were the original inhabitants but officially the coast of Canada was discovered in 1497. The first settlers were the French in the 17th century, who called their colony New France. Anglo-French rivalry in Canada resulted in the defeat of the French and in 1763 Canada became a British colony. In 1931 Canada became independent. GEOGRAPHY Canada is the second largest country in the world and is situated between the Atlantic, the Pacific and the Arctic Oceans.
Canada occupies the northern part of North America. MOUNTAINS The western part of Canada is mountainous; the Cordilleras and several famous ranges form it, e. g. – The Rocky Mountains – The Mackenzie Mountains – The Melville Hills and others The highest peak is Mt. Logan (6 050m). RIVERS The principal rivers are: The Mackenzie, the St. Lawrence, the Nelson, the Colombia. LAKES The interior of Canada possesses many lakes: Great Slave Lake, Great Bear Lake, Lake Winnipeg, Athabasca and the northern part of Great Lakes except of Lake Michigan. There are also The Niagara Falls between Lake Ontario and Lake Erie.
Lakes and rivers in the north are ice-covered for a great part of the year. CLIMATE Canada is one of the coldest countries in the world and most of the inhabited parts of Canada have a continental climate(warm and sunny summers, long and cold winters). On the Pacific coast the climate is milder. In the uninhabited north the winters are very severe = arctic climate. POPULATION Canada has about 29 million inhabitants. Due to the natural and climatic conditions, the density of population is very low. Most people live in the southern part of Canada. – 40 % are of British origin.
– 30 % are of French origin – 20 % are of continental European origin and the rest are Eskimos and Indians THE SYSTEM OF GOVERMENT Canada is a federation of ten provinces (famous are Alberta, Ontario, Quebec-the biggest province and so on) – The capital is Ottawa – The official head of state is Queen Elizabeth II. She is represented in Canada by the General – Governor – There is a Federal government for the whole of Canada, and provincial Governments in each of the provinces. – The Canadian national symbol is the Maple Leaf, which is the most noticeable in the red and white national flag.
ECONOMY Canada is rich in natural resources: uranium, copper, zinc, lead and precious metals: gold, silver, platinum and also coal, iron-ore, gas, oil – Canada is a highly developed industrial country. The main industries are: Wood and paper industry *food i. *Mining i. *petrochemical i. *ship i. – Agriculture plays a very important role.
After the USA, Canada is the largest wheat exporter and a big producer of famous maple syrup and cranberry sauces. CURRENCY AND LANGUAGE – Currency used in Canada is Canadian dollar – Official languages spoken there are: English and French.