An ancient Greek or Roman would have been just as comfortable in Europe in 1700 because daily life was not much different-agriculture and technology were not much changed in 2000+ years. The Industrial Revolution changed human life drastically.
More was created in the last 250+ years than in the previous 2500+ years of known human history. What was the Industrial Revolution? The Industrial Revolution was a fundamental change in the way goods were produced, from human labor to machines. The more efficient means of production and subsequent higher levels of production triggered far-reaching changes to industrialized societies. The Industrial Revolution.
Machines were incented which replaced human labor. New energy sources were developed to power the new machinery-water, steam, electricity, oil (gas, kerosene) Some historians place advanced in atomic solar, and wind energy at the later stage of the Industrial Revolution. Increased use of metals and minerals.
Aluminum, coal, copper, iron, etc. The Industrial Revolution Transportation improved. Ships Wooden ships, Iron Ships, Steel ships, wind powered sails, steam powered boilers. Trains Automobiles Communication improved Telegraph Telephone Radio Developments Mass production of goods. Increased numbers of goods. Increased diversity of goods produced. Development of factory system of production. Rural-to-urban migration.
People left famers to work in cities. Development of capitalism Financial capital for continued industrial growth. Development and growth of new socio-economic classes Working class, bourgeoisie, and wealthy industrial class.
Commitment to research and development. Investments in new technologies.
Industrial and governmental interest in promoting invention, the sciences, and overall industrial growth. Background of the Industrial Revolution. Commercial Revolution 15th, 16th, 17th centuries. Europeans expanded their power worldwide.
Increased geographic knowledge. Colonies in the Americas and Asia. Increase trade and commerce. Guild system could not meet the demands of increasing numbers goods. Background of the Industrial Revolution. Scientific Revolution 17th and 18th centuries. Discoveries of Boyle, Lavoisier, Newton, etc. Intellectual Revolution. 17th and 18th centuries. Writings of Locke, Voltaire, etc. Atmosphere of discovery and free intellectual inquiry. Development of the Domestic System of Production. Domestic system developed in England. Late 1600s-late 1800s. Domestic system of production- “putting out” system. Business people delivered raw materials to workers homes. Workers manufactured goods from these raw materials in their homes. Factory System Developed to replace the domestic system of production. Faster method of production. Workers concentrated in a set location. Production anticipated demand. For example: Under the domestic system a women might select fabric to make a dress. Why the Industrial Revolution started in England… 1. Capital for investing in the means of production. 2. Colonies and Markets for manufactured goods. 3. Raw materials for production. 4. Workers 5. Merchant marine 6. Geography. “Necessity Is the Mother of Invention” Spinning machine Need to speed up weaving Power loom Increased demand for raw cotton Invention of cotton gin Demands for iron The Bessemer Process which created steel The Textile Industry Textiles- cloths or fabrics First Industry to be industrialized Great Britain learned a lot about textiles form India and China. The Birth and Growth of the Textile Industry John Kay (English)- Flying Shuttle 1733 (Hand operated machine which increases the speed of weaving) James Hargreaves (English)—Spinning Jenny, 1765 (Home Based machine that spun thread 8 times faster than when spun by hand.) Richard Arkwright (English)- Water Frame, 1769 (Water powered spinning machine that was too large for use in home—led to the creation of factories. Samuel Crompton (English)—Spinning Mule, 1779
Edward Cartwright (English)—Power Loom, 1785 Eli Whitney (American)—Cotton Gin, 1793 (Device separated raw cotton form cotton) Elias Howe (American)—Sewing Machine, 1846 (Speed of sewing greatly increased) Development of Steam Engines Early eater power involved mills built over fast-moving streams and rivers. Early water power had problems. Not enough rivers to provide the power needed to meet growing demand. Rivers and streams might be far removed from raw materials, workers, and markets. Rivers are prone to flooding and drying. Steam Power Humans tried harnessing steam power for millennia. Hero of Alexandria, Egypt—created a steam driven device in the 1st century B.C.E. Thomas Newcomen, England (1704) Created a steam engine to pump water from mines.
James Watt, Scotland (1769) Improved Newcomen’s engine to power machinery. By 1800, steam engines were replacing water wheels as sources of power for factories increased. Coal and Iron Vast amounts of fuel were required to smelt iron ore to burn out impurities. Abraham Darby (1709) Discovered that heating coal turned it into more efficient coke. John Smeaton (1760) Smelted iron by using water-powered air pumps to create steam blasts. Henry Cort (1783) Developed the puddling process which purified and strengthened molten iron. Increases in Coal and Iron Production, 1770-1800 Coal Production doubled. 6 Million to 12 Million tons. Pig Iron production increased 250% 1800-130,000 tons Great Britain produced as much coal and iron as every other country combined. Bessemer process and Steel Prior to the Industrial Revolution, steel was difficult to prduce and ecpensive. Henry Bessmer, 1856 Developed the Bessemer process Brought on the “Age of Steel” Steel is the most important metal used over the past 150+ years. Other improvements in steel production Open-hearth furnace Electric furnace Use of other metals to produce various types of steel. Transportation Before the Industrial Revolution Canal barges pulled by mules Ships powered by sails Horse-drawn wagons, carts, and carriages. After the Industrial Revolution Trains Steamships Trolleys Automobiles Transportation Revolution Robert Fulton (American) Steamboat (1807) Speed water transportation Thomas Telford and John McAdam (British) Macadamized roads (1810-1830) Improved roads George Stephenson (English) Locomotive (1825) Fast Land transport of people and goods. Gottlieb Daimler (German) Gasoline Engine (1885) Led to the invention of the automobile Rudolf Diesel (German) Diesel Engine (1892) Cheaper fuel Orville and Wilbur Wright (American) Airplane (1903) Air transport The Clermont operated the first regular steamboat route, running between Albany and New York City. Communications Revolution Samuel F.B. Morse (American) Telegraph (1844) Rapid communication across continents Alexander Graham Bell (American) Telephone (1876) Human speech heard across continents Cyrus W. Field (American) Atlantic cable (1866) United States and Europe connected by cable Guglielmo Marconi (Italian) Wireless telegraph, an early form of the radio (1895) Now wires needed for sending messages Lee de Forest (American) Radio tube (1907)