1.1 TITLE OF THE PROJECT:To study the consumer behavior and to identify the reasons that trigger a consumer to shift from Cable TV to Direct- To- Home services.
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:-* Determining the consumer preference for the form of TV channel viewing they prefer. * Determining the effectiveness of the promotional campaigns adopted by India’s two largest private players in this segment. * Determining the causes of satisfaction and dissatisfaction among the users of a particular service. * Determining the needs of the consumers.
1.3 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:* The study seeks to provide a helicopter view of the field reality and hence inference drawn does not provide conclusive evidence, it helps in identifying a trend. * Such surveys need to be taken periodically as the perception of the respondents keeps changing with time. * The sample size due to time & related constraints is only 60. * It is difficult to get people across all ages to participate in the questionnaire.
Chapter 2 – Evolution of the Indian TV Broadcasting Industry
1959: DoordarshanThe history of Indian Television dates back to the launch of Doordarshan, the country’s national television network in 1959. The television was seen as a luxury item that could be bought by only a few rich people. The transmission was in black & white. The 9th Asian Games which were hosted in our country in the year 1982 marked the beginning of the color television broadcast in India.
1991: Cable TVIn 1991, the Indian economy was liberalized from the License Raj and major activities like foreign direct investment, deregulation of domestic businesses began. This led to the influx of foreign channels like Star TV and creation of domestic channels like Sun TV & Zee TV. This virtually destroyed the monopoly held by Doordarshan.
In 1992, the Cable TV industry started. If one could list down the revolutions that happened in the Indian Entertainment Industry, Cable TV would top the list. The number of channels suddenly increased from two & the real entertainment started. The film industry was shocked by the growth of Cable TV & there were even protests for calling off Cable TV industry. The industry survived but the sudden onset of growth made it a disorganized sector.
There were simply too many cable operators in the country. Carrying new channels on the existing infrastructure required huge investments which the cable operators were hesitant to make. Also the channels had a difficult time to get their returns as the existing system was non-addressable & the operators could simply offer less number of channels to amass profits.
This led to the emergence of new type of firms called Multi System Operators (MSO) who had heavy financial muscles to make huge capital investments. They liaised between operators & channels. MSOs provide the feed to the local cable operators for a fee. Soon the industry consolidated with each city having one or two MSOs operating. Moist of the channels are available with all MSOs but sometimes some channels are available with only specific MSO network. Current estimates show that currently there are 6000 MSOs serving 60000 LSOs.
In 1995, the government felt the need of regulation in Cable TV & passed the Cable TV Networks Act. This was also the time when the state owned Doordarshan & All India Radio came under the new holding Prasar Bharati to give them enough autonomy.
Even with the basic regulations there were various problems in distribution. LCOs reported a lower number of connections whereas the broadcasters demanded a higher rate. MSOs were finding it hard to operate under such conditions. This led to the amendment of the Cable TV Networks Act in 2002 to provide the Conditional Access System. With CAS, the last mile of distribution was addressable with accuracy & digitalization of broadcast was also possible.
2003: DTH entry in IndiaOn the DTH front, The United Front Government had issued a ban on the Ku-band transmission. In 2001 this ban was lifted & TRAI issued the guidelines for operating DTH. Country’s first private license for DTH was granted to DISH TV in 2003 which began operations in 2004. Prasar Bharati also started its product DD-Direct+.
In 2007 TRAI proposed a new initiative HITS (Head end-In-The-Sky) model as an alternative to the existing cable distribution. In this, instead of the MSOs providing the bundle there will be a single HITS operator who will prepare the bundle of channels & beam it to the Head end in the satellite.
The LCOs can receive the digitalized bundles and deliver to individual homes. With HITS country wise implementation of CAS became instantaneous & cost-effective. This benefits both- the customers as well as the broadcasters by ensuring addressability, better quality service & increased number of channels. Another emerging trend is the IPTV which is yet to be regulated and one can expect lot of action in this sector.
Chapter 3 – Introduction to Indian DTH Industry
3.1 DTH & India
Direct to home (DTH) entertainment service has digitalized Indian entertainment to bring to your home the best in television viewing through the latest in digital technology.
Direct-to-home (DTH) also referred to as Direct broadcast satellite (DBS) is a term used to refer to satellite television broadcasts intended for home reception. The expression direct-to-home or DTH was, initially, meant to distinguish the transmissions directly intended for home viewers from cable television distribution services that sometimes carried on the same satellite
It not only broadcasts high quality programmes straight from the satellite to your home, but also gives you absolute and complete control of what you watch and pay for. It is almost like having your own satellite up in the sky.
With DTH services you can unleash the true potential of your high-end television set and complete your TV viewing experience with true DVD quality.
If you are a connoisseur of good sound then make sure you experience true stereophonic sound effects, which only DTH services can bring to your home.
DTH services takes television viewing to the next level as it supports various futuristic features like Electronic Programme Guide, Parental Lock, Capacity up to 400 channels, Games, Interactive TV, Movie on Demand etc.
DTH also brings you exclusive National and International channels for the first time in India! You can enjoy all of these never-seen -before channels in uninterrupted viewing without any transmission cuts.
DTH uses NSS-6 to broadcast its programmes. NSS-was launched on 17th December, 2002 by European-based satellite provider, NewSkies (one of the only four fixed satellite communications companies with truly global satellite coverage)
In Europe, prior to the launch of Astra 1A in 1988, the term DBS was commonly used to describe the nationally-commissioned satellites planned and launched to provide TV broadcasts to the home within several European countries (eg BSB in the UK, TV-Sat in Germany).
These services were to use the D-Mac and D2-Mac format and BSS frequencies with circular polarization from orbital positions allocated to each country.
Before these DBS satellites, home satellite television in Europe was limited to a few channels, really intended for cable distribution, and requiring dishes typically of 1.2m SES Astra launched the Astra 1A satellite to provide services to homes across Europe receivable on dishes of just 60cm-80cm and, although these mostly used PAL video format and FSS frequencies with linear polarization, the DBS name slowly came to applied to all Astra satellites and services too.
India’s first KU-band DTH entertainment service, hopped on to NSS-6 from an INSAT satellite in July 2004. The change in the satellite was to increase the channel offering as NSS 6 offered more transponder capacity.
DTH services have changed the face of the Indian television home, bringing it at par with the global entertainment industry.
The ground breaking direct-to-home digital entertainment service brings the power of choice to you. Entertainment in your language of choice and packages to suit preferences and budget. Over 180 channels are on offer by various DTH players and growing.
Besides elevating you to a new technology dishtv offers you an option of complete freedom from the friendly neighbourhood cable guy.
Going the Direct to Home way has innumerable other advantages that change the way you watch television forever: * Superior Picture quality, just like watching a DVD* Stereophonic Sound* Capacity up to 400 channels* Geographic Mobility* Uninterrupted Viewing* Exclusive International Channels* Parental Lock facility* Electronic Programme Guide