Introduction The construction industry is the largest sector in any developing economy as it accounts for about 95% of both building and heavy engineering works. Construction activities therefore play a catalyst role and are not only an element in economic activities, but by itself create both backward and forward linkage in the rest of the economy. In the words, it has an economic multiplier effect.
When new project comes up for consideration, the civil engineers will initially require some firsthand knowledge of the locality in which the work is to be carried out, preliminary investigations and studies will then be made, and when these are approved, complete contract drawings and specifications are prepared. Once financial arrangement is made, tenders are called for, a contract is awarded and construction begins. When the project is completed, it must be periodically inspected and maintained in good order.
Hence right from planning stage to completion stage and then to use it, number of different persons and specified firms are involved for its satisfactory completion. These number of specialist firms or personnel involved form ‘Building Industry’. These different persons have their own entity in itself with their own special features and problems and a different approach in each case. Following are persons that form the construction industry. MEMBERS OF THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION TEAM •Client/ owner •The Architect •The Quantity Surveyor •Land planner •Engineers
•Contractor •Material supplier •Building •Users STAGES IN CONSTRUCTION 1. Pre-design stage. i. e consist of initiation of proposal, preparation of schemes, technical sanction, acceptance of proposal according to feasibility report and acquisition of land if required. 2. Design stage. Consist of preparing contour plan, site survey, development of design and finalization; structural design, and preparation of detailed drawings. 3. Estimates stage. Preparation of detailed estimate; determination of quantities of construction materials.
4. Tendering stage.
Preparation of tender documents; invitation of tender; preparation of comparative statement and award of contract. 5. Execution stage. Execution work by any agency i. e departmental execution, contracting agency etc. procurement of materials, supervision, site inspection preparation of running bills; payment of wages, payment of bills and final payment of bill, submission of completion report. 6. Maintenance. Daily maintenance; yearly maintenance; routine maintenance, etc. RESOURCES OF CONSTRUCTION Men: skilled and unskilled, supervising staff, specialist personnel.
Materials: such as cement, steel, bricks, timber, aluminum, aggregates, fittings and fixtures, scaffolding and shaving, oil and lubricants, etc. Money: for almost all above items need financial resources without which nothing can be executed. THE CLIENT/OWNER Is the one who wants to get a work executed as economically and as quickly as possible and to know in advance his ultimate financial commitments. It may be government, public body or some private individuals. The client is in need for a building or other civil works, so he/ she employs an architect and tells them what kind of project he/she wants.
The architect who in most cases is the lead designer, design the kind of structure that will meet the client’s need and interact with the client throughout the project so that the project stay within the client’s requirement and specification. THE ARCHITECT Is the first person involved in the planning stage of a building industry. He should be an artist, a technician and moreover a businessman. He has to satisfy the client, engineer, contractor and ultimately user. The architect after having obtained the instruction from the owner, design the function layout and provision of functional accommodation.
He has to make structure beautiful and functional. He should give aesthetic effect to the structure. He is supposed to have knowledge of building bye-laws and regulations. During construction, he supervises the work as an agent to the owner, negotiates with client, Prepares drawings and specifications, Obtains planning permission, Prepares legal documents, Chooses building materials, Plans the construction process, Advises on the selection of, and will liaise with the construction team, and Inspects work.
Selection of the architect for a development is obviously a critical step. Theention systems, the choice will be based on a combination of considerations, including competence and reputation, compatibility of values and goals between developer and architect, and ability of the two to communicate effectively. Since there is, in principle, inherent tension between the design function (i. e aesthetically oriented) and the developer (i. e cost and time oriented) communication of views and priorities are vital for a successful outcome.
THE LAND PLANNER For land developments the developer (client) gives key design role to a land planner. In large projects involving multiple structures, extensive ground parking areas and drainage and water retention systems, the developer will rely on a land planner to solve the complex land planning puzzle. The developer work closely with the land planner to evolve the basic site plan within which any structures must fit. He uses input from specialist like the hydrologist, architect, marketing consultant, engineers, soil engineer, and others.
The major concern of the land planner includes aesthetics, optimal use, and preservation of the site, traffic flows, utility systems, and drainage system. He also carries out an environmental impact assessment of the project and suggest for alternation or otherwise, if it will have negative impact on the environment then it will be discarded. THE ENGINEERS The expertise of several types’ engineers must be coordinated by the architect in bringing together the final structure design.
These engineers commonly work as subordinators to the architect, but their qualification need to be reviewed by the developer. The Soil Engineer: He determines the sufficient specifications to achieve safety and stability, for the structure foundation. He also test the soil for stability, strength, stress, strain and specify the kind of foundation that will be suitable for the building/ structure (pile, raft, pad, etc. ). The Structural Engineer; Calculate the loading and moments for a structure, Design the form for a structure, determine the most appropriate materials.
Determine the requisite structural skeleton to maintain the building/ structure’s integrity. He also considers the numbers of beam, column that will withstand the tensional load, and give specification of the types of materials that will sustain the building life span. The Mechanical Engineer; provide specifications and design for the heating, Ventilation, and air conditioning system and other building systems. In his/her design, he/she gives the number of HVAC systems that the building will use and the standard of such system.
An Electrical Engineer; design the power sources and distribution system and also specify the type, size, made and quantity of materials (electrical equipment) that the project (building & civil works) will consumed. The Civil Engineer; then design the on-site utility systems including sewers, water, street, parking and site grading. And can also represent the client in his/ her absent on site. THE QUANTITY SURVEYOR The quantity surveyor determines the overall cost of the project (civil & building).
As he/ she priced all the elements that made up the building from foundation to finishing. He prepares the bills of quantities and values the work from time to time, during progress of the work. He also settles all claims arising from the project and also stands in for the client in case of any matter related to cost of the project. He carries out interim valuation of the project cost. THE CONTRACTOR When all the plans are ready, complete details have been ascertained, moreover tender notices have been issued, and the contractor comes into play.
He submits his tender for undertaking the work, along with financial risk. He employs the labour, arranges material and equipment required for the execution of the work control and coordinate the activities of the specialist firms, if required. This needs the careful planning, good organization, a thorough knowledge of different techniques of construction. Contractor gets the work executed under the supervision of engineer in charge. He is given all the drawings and detailed specification required for the construction of work by the engineer-in-charge.
Strictly speaking he is not at all a part of building industry but whatever is planned and executed by building industry. User is a judge to decide the quality of work and facilities provided. In building generally he decides whether house has been planned functionally well or not.
He actually faces the difficulties of poor planning. Therefore, he also becomes a party of building industry. The complete project is executed only after doing genuine modification, if any, as suggested by the user. References www. wikipeadia. the freeenclyclopedia/membersof/the%design/andconstructionsite www. google. com/thedesignteam