The development of science in Ukraine, Tenses and Voices.

W e start our work with a new topic The development of science in Ukraine. I propose you to recall some facts about this topic. W hat is the development of science in Ukraine connected with? W hat are the famous Ukrainian names in World Science? W hat interesting historical facts about the development of science do you know?

 Main stageReading practice: read the following textThe development of science in Ukraine.Eminent names and scientific schoolsIn the twentieth century, a number of renowned scientific schools were established in Ukraine dealing with problems of geochemistry and the natural sciences (V. Vernadsky), mechanics (S. Tymoshenko), oriental studies (A. Krymsky), microbiology (D. Zabolotny), biology (0. Bohomolets), chemistry (L. Pysar/hcvsky), electrical welding and bridge-building (Ye. Paton), physics (M. Boholiubov), cybernetics (V. Glushkov), space engineering (M. Yanhel), etc.

Ukrainian scientists and scholars can boast major achievements, such as the artificial nuclear reaction to split the lithium nucleus; production of heavy water; a procedure for automatically welding lank bodies; the Europe’s first computer; new areas pioneered in metallurgy: electric metallurgy with electroslag, plasma-arc, and plasma electron-beam remelting, development of unique rockets and spacecraft, etc. Ukraine’s Scientific Potential

Science is a major factor allowing Ukraine to be ranked among the world’s advanced countries in the twenty-first century. By the beginning of the year 2000, Ukraine’s scientific potential of Ukraine comprised 1,506 scientific institutions and organizations. Of these, 289 were in the academic sector, 160 were institutions of higher learning, while 964 belonged to the industry, and 93 to the factory sector. 126,000 persons are directly engaged in research and engineering activities.

These include 4,132 doctors and over 20,000 candidates of sciences. Six state academies are leaders in Ukrainian science: the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ukrainian Academy of Agricultural Science, Academy of Medical Science, Academy of Jurisprudence, the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences, and the Academy of Arts. The Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine is responsible for the governmental management of scientific and scholarly activities. The Coming Future

Ukraine is proud to comply with world scientific standards in mathematics, mechanics, physics, computer science, materials science, and a number of other trends directly related to the manufacture of the high tech science-intensive products increasingly demanded by foreign scientific institutions and industrial firms. For instance, a unique pilot plant has been built, which simulates the effect of outer space on spacecraft.

Germany and China have purchased this plant and the European Space Agency is using it for research purposes. Together with Pratt and Whitney, a US aerospace firm, the Institute of Electrical Welding is developing a procedure for producing new materials using the technique of high-speed electron-beam evaporation and condensation of matter in a vacuum.

The Institute of Monocrystals, a research and technical concern, supplies scintillation crystals as well as sapphire implants and tools to research centres in the US, Japan and Switzerland for neurosurgical and ophthalmological applications. Researchers at the Institute for Cryobiology and Cryomcdicine have arranged production of competitive biological preparations on request by many foreign firms. During the years of independence, a basic advance has been made by Ukraine in the social sciences and humanities. This contributed much to the nation’s rethinking of its centuries-long path in

the historical and cultural development and today’s position of Ukraine in the context of the international and European civilizing process. This is the fifteenth year that the Ukrainian scholars have been involved in studying the scientific, technological, economic, medical, and social aspects with the goal of mitigating the consequences of the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant disaster, turning the devastated Unit 4 into an ecologically sound system, and establishing an international test field within the affected area for investigating the impact of radiation on the environment.

Ukrainian science is making successful efforts to be integrated into the international scientific community. Each year dozens of monographs by Ukrainian scholars are published abroad. Many Ukrainian scientific journals are translated into foreign languages. Under the aegis of UNESCO, an international research and educational centre for information technologies and systems as well as international chairs of cryobiology and physiology have been set up in Ukraine. Established in 1993, the International Association of Academies of Sciences is playing an important role to stimulate integration processes among Academies of Sciences of CIS countries. The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine headed by Academician Borys Paton, its world-renowned President, remains the stronghold of these research institutions.

Ukrainian Space IndustryYoung independent Ukraine confidently became one of the world space states owing to its space research and production potential. In February 1992, National Space Agency of Ukraine (NSAU) was established to implement state space activities policy. Its control sphere includes about 30 production enterprises, research organizations and design offices. The enterprises of space industry gain great experience in development and production of modern launch vehicles, spacecraft, engines, control and telemeter system. New materials and technologies are being phased in, and some of them have no counterparts.

Space goods and services export increased from year to year. Currently, space industry restructuring is being prepared and implemented to assure further development of enterprises in market environment. The restructuring provides forming of favorable business and investment climate, advance in rates of science intensive production output, development of new competitive technics, increase the quality and efficiency of production. It is planned to corporatize and incorporate state-owned companies, possibilities for establishment of international investment fund are also considered.

So, Ukrainian space industry enters into new millenium introducing market innovation system, which is favorable for improving investment climate and attracting investors to mutual beneficial cooperation within jointcommercial projects.

Comprehension:a)Explain the meaning of the following words and word-combinations: Eminent, welding, plasma-arc, to comply, launch vehicles, mitigating, electron-beam evaporation, enterprise, counterpart.b)Answer the questions:Name the renowned scientific schools, their leaders and directions of their researches. To your mind, does Ukraine have cientific Potential? Give proof ofyour opinion. Describe the future prospective of science development in Ukraine. Grammar practice: revision of tenses and voices.1. Use the Present, Past or Future Indefinite instead of the infinitives in brackets. Use the Passive Voice where necessary:1. We (to be) all so excited, we (can) hardly wait for tomorrow morning. 2. I (to have), my friend, that you (to come) and (to spend) at least a week with us. 3. No one (to know) when he (to come) tomorrow , or whether he (to come) soon because he (to work) hard. 5. I will hardly do this if I (to be allowed). 6. The telegram (to bring) yesterday in the morning when I (to be) just about to leave the house for my office. 7. What you (to do) on your last day off? – I (to spend) it in the country with my friends. 8. He (to promise) that everything (arrange) before tomorrow afternoon. 9. If anyone (to

want) to see me, tell them I (to be) back by five. 10. Arthur waited till Jemma (to come) up to him. 11. With a slight sigh he (to draw) the candle towards him, (to take) out a fountain-pen, and (to begin) a letter to his mother. 12. Your answers must (to write) on one side of the paper only. 13. He promised to come if he (to have) time. 14. As soon as you (to buy) the book, I (to borrow) it from you. II.Use the Past Indefinite or the Past Perfect instead of the Infinitives in the brackets:

1. Margot (to go) to the door and (to lock) it, and (to return) with the key. 2. He (to make) tea and (to eat) the biscuits which Mrs. Aberdeen (to bring) him. 3. When the cinema (to be) over they (to go) for a walk across the dark damp fields. 4. Cathie (to spend) the night at home, and on entering the dining-room (to glance) at the space above the fire. 5. It (to be) all so sudden that for a moment no one (to know) what (to happen). 6. He (to tell) me that they (to be) at the same public school and (to be) friends ever since. 7. Near the door he (to see) the man he (to notice) at the station. 8. The house (to be) much smaller than he (to think) at first.

III. Use the Past Indefinite, the Past Continuous or the Past Perfect instead of the infinitives in brackets:1. Yes, Cathie? What you (to say)? 2. He ever (not to count) the money that Lammiter (to hold ) out to him. 3. I (to look) at her. She (to smile) to herself and (not to realize) where she (to be) and what (to happen). 5. Then she (to get) up and (to go) to the kitchen and (to open) the fridge.

6. Toby and Michael (to smile) each other and (to begin) to walk slowly towards the lake. 7. The silence in the room (to tell) that the rain (to stop). 8. She (can) not think why she (not to think) of this before, she (to say). 9. He (to go) away on the very day I (to arrive). 10. My mother (to make) sandwiches in the kitchen and (not to hear) the bell. 11. He (to go) to school for the first time with a bunch of flowers in his hand, and it (to seem) to him that everyone (to turn) to look at him. 12. After he (to leave) school he (can) not find a job and (to decide) to go to New York. 13. The grass (to be) damp; it (to tell) us that rain (to fall) in the night. 14. Now he (to look) at me with wide open eyes.

15. He (can) not stop thinking that he (to see) that face somewhere before. 16. After he (to read) ”The Gadfly” he (to tell) all his friends that he never (to read) a better book. 17. Roger (to say) he (to come) back in an hour. 18. She (to turn) and it (to be) a little brighter outside. 19. After the war they (to part) and he (to tell) me that he (not to see) her since. 20. She (to go) back to take her gloves and bag which she (to leave) on the hall table. 21. The storm (to pass) and the sun (to shine) on the green leaves of the trees. 22. He (to look) through the window and (not to seem) to notice me. IV. Read the following sentences twice; (a) in the Present Perfect tenses; (b) in thePast Indefinite using the words in brackets:

1. He (to tell) me about it (a minute ago; just). 2. I (to be introduced) to him (at the Institute; already). 3. He (to inform) them about his plans (last time; ever)? 4. She (to be) here (at six o’clock; since six o’clock). 5. Jim (to come) back (last night; yet)? 6. I (to admire) his books (when a boy; since childhood).

7. She (to be) excited (all day yesterday; all day). 8. I (not to see) him (last week; since last week). 9. He (to live) in London (in 1968; since 1968). 10. She (to know) me (for ten years; at the age of ten) 11. W e (not to play) tennis (since last Sunday; last Sunday). 12. I (to hear) the news only (last night; today). 13. I (not to meet) him (this month; last month). 14. He (to tell) you about it (ever; during the lesson)? 15. They (to leave) Moscow (already; at night). V. Use the Past Indefinite, the Past Continuous, or the Past Perfect instead of the infinitive in brackets:

Next morning when I (to wake), the sun (to shine) brilliantly. It (to be) late and I (to have) no supper the night before, so I (to dress) quickly and (to go) downstairs. I (to be) surprised to find the doors locked and the house empty. A dozen times or more I (to call) out my host’s name, but the house (to be) as still as the grave. What it all (to mean)? I (to begin) to doubt my wisdom in being so ready to trust a stranger. I ought to have gone on to the next village, where I (to know) that friends (to be) awaiting me. Instead, I (to be frightened) by a few drops of rain. At last, however, I (to hear) footsteps, and soon my host (to appear), looking, I (to think), rather strange.

He just (to be) out, he (to say), to feed the horses. But I (to notice) the mud (to be) thick and wet upon his shoes and I (to wonder) where he (to be), and why he (to want) to deceive me. VI. Use the Present, Past or Future Perfect tenses instead of the infinitives in brackets: 1. The news, that he (to leave) the town was a surprise to all of us.2.Edward is a dear, I always (to be) very fond of him.3.By the time you come we (to do) the greater part of the work. 4.He asked himself if he (to see) her before.5.By the end of the school year we (to learn) a lot of new words.6.When he (to count) the money he put it away.7.I don’t know anything about it, I (not to see)

him lately, he (to be) mostly in London all these days.8.When by half past two he (not to arrive) Dora was worried.9.They say that by the first of January they (to live) in this street for ten years.10.When I (to be) in your country for five years I shall write a book about it.11.I’ll stay until you (to do) your translation. I can help you if you allow me.12.Those who (to write) the test may leave the class-room. VII. Translate into English using the appropriate tenses:

1. Я сьогодні запізнився, оскільки прокинувся лише о 9 годині. 2. Ми знали, що якщо ми попросимо його допомогти нам, то він погодиться. 3. Я не впевнена, що він скористається вашою порадою . 4. Все це буде відбуватись зі мною і дуже швидко. 5. Цей шум триває з тих пір, як я тут сиджу. 6. Він відкрив книгу і побачив фотографію, яку я не бачив з дитинства. 7. Я не пам’ятаю, куди поклала окуляри. 8. Я відчула, що на мене дивляться. 9. Минулого тижня він був хворий, а зараз видужує. 10. Чому ви сидите на камені? Ви можете захворіти. 11. Дощ перестав, але дув холодний вітер. 12. Тебе запросили на вечірку. Ще ні, але я впевнена, що мене запросять.

Home taskTo learn topic related vocabulary.Ukrainian Names in the World Science – to read and translate (p.30-31, G.Yatel)

Materials and resources:1. G.Yatel – Senior English For Technical Students – Київ. – Вища школа. – 1995. 2. Англійська мова – Методичні завдання та тести до виконання самостійної роботи для студентів II-го курсу ФЕЛ. Петрова Л.С., Язвінська Н.М. – Київ. – 2007.