Data Collection Approaches

Both the approaches will be applied as in practice all most all the research projects have to have elements of both the approaches in view of the importance of including both qualitative and quantitative findings. Research Data Data includes facts, observations or experiences on which an argument, theory or test is based. Data includes laboratory notebooks, field notebooks, primary research data (including research data in hardcopy or in computer readable form), questionnaires, audiotapes, videotapes, models, photographs, films, test responses.

Quantitative research involves an objective way of studying things through the use of numerical data and mathematical and statistical procedures. Examples of quantitative methods include survey methods, laboratory experiments, formal methods and numerical methods, such as mathematical modelling. Qualitative research involves the use of analysis and opinions such as interviews and documents to understand and explain phenomena.

Qualitative research approaches have traditionally been favored when the main research objective is to improve the understanding of a phenomenon. Its many methodologies and techniques have helped researchers get a better insight of a variety of management situations. In the authors view this project requires both a qualitative and quantitative data approaches because not all research lends itself to purely numerical approach for information collection.

There are two approaches to data collection, namely, Primary (obtained first hand) and Secondary (desk study or existing sources) research. Primary sources are those data which are unpublished and which have been gathered from the organization directly. There are two approaches that can be associated with secondary research, both of which will be used in the research as follows:- •    Statistical format (public information collected by organisations and institutions). •    Descriptive documents (newspapers, journals and observations, etc.

) Data Collection Strategies A research strategy is a general method used to ensure collection of adequate number of answers to the research questions. The common strategies for research are experiment, survey, case study, action research, ethnography and so on. To fulfil the present dissertation’s main aims and objectives survey and ethnography are considered as the most appropriate research methods for the chosen research topic along with published interviews. Research instruments

Primary data is often collected for the research study to answer a specific question. Ways of collecting this kind of information includes surveys, observation or controlled experiments. Surveys are one of the most common ways to collect data, where the subject can be contacted through mail, telephone or directly in personal interviews. It entails sending questionnaires to the target audience and important policy makers, analysts, researchers and social scientists who have a perception of the problem of illegal migrants on the Californian health system.