Criminology Laboratory Report on Sexual Violence and Youth Violence
Sexual Violence as defined as an act of doing sex where it is against someone’s will. Sexual violence does include violence in the form of words, physical or even psychological. There are four types of sexual violence namely: the complete sex act, attempted sex act, abusive sexual act, and non contact sexual abuse (CDC 2008).
Consequences of Sexual Violence
The detrimental consequences of sexual violence include physical, social, health behavior, and psychological. Physical consequences of sexual violence include spread of sexually transmitted disease, pregnancies, and long term consequences such as permanent and temporary disability that hinders work, pain in different parts such as face, pelvis, back, headache, premenstrual syndrome, disorders including the gastrointestinal system and gynecological and pregnancy complication (CDC 2008).
Psychological cost of being involved on a sexual violence includes immediate psychological stress. The immediate psychological reaction may involve shock, feeling of nervousness, anxiety, denial, withdrawal and symptoms of post traumatic disorder. In addition to these immediate psychological reactions, longer effects or the chronic consequences also include long term depression, suicidal tendencies, or post traumatic stress disorder symptom.
Consequences for the individuals that were involved in sexual violence include greater impacts on the social aspect of the victim. Decreased chances of getting married were observed among victims, the reaction of the victim to friends and family members would be edgy.
Health behaviors are also affected, the individuals that were involved on a sexual violence becomes more potent to sexual behaviors that were considered high risk. These may include prostitution, sex partners that unhealthy and often times multiple in number. Drug abuse among victims, smoking, and abuse in the utilization of alcohol were also considered as a consequence of the sexual violence (CDC 2008).
Factors Contributing for Increased Risk of Sexual Violence
There are factors that contribute for being at risk for sexual violence. These factors should be considered to potentially determine the possibility of occurrence of sexual violence. Males usually have the greater tendency to commit sexual violence against females, exposure to friends and peers that are sexually aggressive, growing in an environment were violence is blatant, and the abuse of substances such as drugs and alcohol (CDC 2008).
Statistics on Sexual Abuse
The following data are the recent statistical findings for the sexual violence. The survey was conducted using 9,684 adults as subjects. The result of the survey showed that 10.6 percent of the women subjects experienced sex that was against their will. It was reported that 20 to 25 percent of the women experienced forced sex or attempted rape during college.
Sources of Data
The data that was gathered by the CDC came from different reliable sources. CDC data sources includes: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BFRSS), National Violence Against Women, National Electronic, Injury, Surveillance System- All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP), National Violent Death Reporting System, National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, Youth Risk Behavioral Surveillance System, FBI, NCBS and other non-federal data sources (CDC 2008).
The Important Facts
The CDC site provided a lot of important facts among these are five that I found very essential in the field of criminology. The formal definition of sexual Violence, statistics on sexual violence, factors for being at-risk in sexual violence, laws, policies and legal reform regarding sexual violence, and the consequences of sexual violence (CDC 2008).
Relevance and Application of the Information to the Criminal Justice Professionals
Criminal Justice Professionals need to know the formal definition of sexual violence so that they have a justified background to what is a considerable sexual violence. The knowledge on factors for being at-risk in sexual violence will be a great help in analyzing sexual violence cases. The statistics provided by the different institutions will inform the police officers regarding the severity of sexual violence on their area of responsibility. Background knowledge on the consequences of sexual violence will help the criminal justice professionals in treating the victims of such violence. The over-all information will help the police officers in planning appropriate actions for certain sexual violence cases.
The formal definition of youth violence is the behavior or set of actions that are harmful that might begin during childhood and has a chance to progress into adulthood. Youth violence encompasses different roles such as victim, offender, or even being witness to the violence is considered youth violence.
Actions such as bullying and other physical behavior like hitting or punching may cause harm other than physical harm such as emotional damage. On the worst cases, rape, robbery and other extreme behavior may cause death (CDC 2008).
Youth Violence as a Problem of the Public
Youth violence’s data in the United States reached alarming levels. In 2005, the statistics recorded that in every passing day, 16 young aged people dies in a murder. It was also recorded at the same year that 36 percent of high school students experienced physical fight for the past 12 months. It was also noted that high school students have a 7 percent record for taking deadly weapon on the premises of the school. Involvement in bullying was perceived to be 30 percent between 6th and 10th grader kids. A 2006 figure portrayed 720,000 cases in the United States emergency rooms were due to young people violence.
Risk Factors for Youth Violence
Young individuals that were involved in youth violence shared common factors. The following are the risk factors for youth violence: exposure to violence during childhood, extreme poverty in the community that lead them no choice but to commit violence, presence of friends that are delinquent, abuse of certain substances such as alcohol and drugs, association with a poorly functioning family, and relatively low grades in school (CDC 2008).
Statistics on Youth Violence
The following data are the recent statistical findings for the youth violence. It was recorded that the second leading cause of death for young individuals is homicide. The victims of homicide among young individuals were perceived to be 86% for males and 14 percent for females. 82 percent of the homicide cases of young individuals with age range 10-24 used firearm (CDC 2008).
Data on school related youth violence were also available. In 2005 survey, 18.2 percent male students and 8.8 percent female student were involved on a fight within the premises of school. Damaged property on school that was done by the students was 29.8 percent. There was a 6 percent of the student population who wants to leave school due to unsafe feeling. And 7.9 percent were recorded to being warned or actually injured by a weapon on school premises.
Sources of Information
The data that was gathered by the CDC came from different reliable sources. CDC data sources includes: National Electronic, Injury, Surveillance System- All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP), National Violent Death reporting System (NDRS), School-Associated Violent Deaths Study, School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS), WISQARS, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), FBI, and the Office of the Juvenile Justice, and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP).
The Important Facts
All the facts presented by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention were essential however these facts are very relevant in the field of criminology: Formal definition of youth violence, risk factors for youth violence, statistics for youth violence, policies related to youth violence, and preventive measures for the violence of youth.
Relevance and Application of the Information to the Criminal Justice Professionals
The criminal justice professional should know the basic definition of youth violence to decipher whether an act is a kind of youth violence. The risk factors for youth violence will help the police officers to determine whether an individual may pose risk in committing youth violence. A basic knowledge on the statistics will let the police officers know the seriousness of the problem which in turn will be useful in planning strategies for preventing youth violence. The policies related to youth violence will give the criminal justice professionals an idea of what kind of action to employ on certain youth violence situation. All of the information will be useful to halt youth violence which is the seed of crimes in the United States.
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2008). Sexual Violence Facts at a Glance. Retrieved May 31, 2008, from http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/dvp/SV/SVDataSheet.pdf
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2008). Sexual Violence PreventionScientific Information: Consequences. Retrieved May 31, 2008, from http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/dvp/SV/svp-consequences.htm
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2008). Sexual Violence Prevention Scientific Information: Definition. Retrieved May 31, 2008, from http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/dvp/SV/svp-definitions.htm
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2008). Understanding Sexual Violence Fact Sheet. Retrieved May 31, 2008, from http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/images/SV%20Factsheet.pdf
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2008). Understanding Youth Violence Fact Sheet. Retrieved May 31, 2008, from http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/YVFactSheet.pdf
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2008). Youth Violence Facts at a Glance. Retrieved May 31, 2008, from http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/dvp/YV_DataSheet.pdf
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2008). World Report on Violence and health Retrieved May 31, 2008, from http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/global_campaign/en/chap2.pdf
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2008). World Report on Violence and health Retrieved May 31, 2008, from http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/global_campaign/en/chap6.pdf