Criminology and Criminal Justice

What classical theories are still in use today? How do these theories effect policy making? How punishment is used within neoclassical criminology. Classical theories Beccaria theory Recently, in most cases, punishment is viewed as a deterrence and not retribution. By punishing criminals other will learn of the consequences of participating in that particular criminal activity. Crime prevention is more important than revenge. In addition to that individual rights are respected and individuals are innocent till proven guilty by the court (Schmalleger, 2002).

Bentham theory Human beings are fundamentally rational as they have the free will. Individuals have the freedom of choice and thus the actions they undertake are as a result of their own decisions. The pain from punishment should outweigh the pleasure derived from the criminal activity in order to ensure crime reduction and prevention (Schmalleger, 2002). Effects to policy making Most policies developed and implemented to curb criminal activities are meant to prevent the occurrence of similar crime.

Policymakers consider deterrence before developing a policy. The main purpose of most policies is to prevent individuals from committing crime. Furthermore, human rights are considered in policy making as the policies made are meant to protect the society. Additionally, there is a variation in terms of punishment for criminal activities as different criminal activities have different punishment. The policies are designed to ensure that the pain acquired through a particular punishment is severe than the pleasure derived from committing the crime.

Use of punishment within neoclassical criminology Punishment is used as a way of retribution hence a revenge method (Schmalleger, 2002). In this case, the criminals deserve to be given the same treatment they have provided to others. They need to experience the same feelings as their victims did. For instance, if individuals have stolen a car, they should be severely punished to ensure that they are hurt the same way the car owner was hurt by their action. In addition to that punishment is used as a deterrent to prevent repetition of similar crime.

Through punishment, the criminal will change his or her behavior for the better. However, in my view, change of behavior has a high occurrence chance when the crime committed was unintentionally. For intentional crimes behavioral will occur but has a lower chance of occurrence. Furthermore, by punishing criminal, other people will not commit that crime since they will observe and understand the response to that particular action. How does pornography affect the average U. S. citizen?

Should our government protect us from being exposed to pornography? If so, why and in what ways? If not, why not? Because of pornography more youngsters are becoming sexualized at very tender age. Individuals who are about ten years old in normal life situations should not be sexually active; however, nowadays because of pornography they have become active. Pornography is changing societal norms; behaviors which were not accepted are now being accepted by the society. Situations which were considered abnormal are now becoming normal.

In the past, a youngster of about 10 years of age getting pregnant was abnormal but in the recent days it is normal. In addition to that more youngsters are becoming pregnant at a very tender age thereby increasing the burden on their parents. However, since the parents have no option they have to raise all their children and grandchildren together. Furthermore, pornography is leading to increased sexual assaults by both young and old individuals. It is affecting the moral behaviors of individuals by instilling immoral thoughts leading to actions which are illegal.

Pornography is addictive and is therefore affecting the work performance of some employees. Some individual cannot go through the day without watching pornography, they have look for time even if it means going to work late. The government should protect the society from pornography. Pornography has a large number of negative effects to the society thereby making the society unsafe. For instance, with the growing pornographic industry, human trafficking, sex tourism and child pornography are growing at a very fast pace and this makes the society unsecured.

This mainly because pornography is leading to an increase in the number of illegal activities and law offenders. The government should pass laws which control pornography and especially in the internet. Most youngsters are getting exposed to pornography through the internet. Internet is not controlled adequately and thus an individual of any age can open pornographic sites. Additionally, the punishment for offenders with offenses related to pornography should be made harsher. Imprisonment years should be increased and fines increased greatly.

What has your department done to prepare for a biological weapons attack? Could more be done within your department? If so what? Should we depend on a federal response or federal aid? Why? Departmental preparation My department takes security very seriously and hence has developed and implemented policies and procedures focused on ensuring security of the employees and property. These policies define the responsibilities of each employee in cases where there is a security breach within the department or in the organization.

Additionally, there are procedures put in place on how to tackle cases of security breach. By assuring security, the employees feel secure thereby leading to improvements in the performance. Furthermore, the department provides training to employees on matters concerning security within the department. Improvements In spite of the department taking security as vitally important, the policies at the department are general and thus needs improvements. The department needs to developed and implemented policies and procedures focused on biological weapons.

The procedures should be more detailed and the responsibilities of each employee in cases where biological weapons are detected within the department or organization should be clearly defined. Well defined responsibilities will prevent conflict in duties and thus assure a fast response. Furthermore, the department should ensure that the training provided to employees is inclusive of biological weapons concepts. A comprehensive training should be provided to all employees to ensure they understand what biological weapons are, how to detect and tackle them. Federal response and aid.

The response from the government is important in tackling biological weapons however individuals should not depend greatly on it. The government has advanced technological in handling biological weapons but in some cases the response might be slow due to communication barriers or traffic jams among others. Individuals should ensure they have adequate knowledge and skills on matters concerning biological weapons. Word count: 944. Reference list Schmalleger F. , (2002). Criminology today: An integrative introduction. Edition: 3. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. pp. 132-35,145.