A wealthy girl, age 17, whose father is in the government as a drug policy maker, and lives in Britain would be addicted to heroin. Identify the occurring factors that lead to heroin use when the father is always away on business trying to stop the heroin supply and the mother turns a blind eye. Theories in criminology tend to be unclear and lacking in justifiable broadness. The lack of clarity can sometimes end up in apparent inconsistencies, although more attention to the structure of a scientific theory and its requirements might reveal more agreement among theorists than now recognized.
In fact, rarely do available theories offer guidance that does not require heroic leaps of conjecture. Practicality is not a requirement of a valid theory since theories might be void but still of use. However, condition for a theory to be considered certifiable is none other than practicality. Theories of law breaking are the most common and essential in the field of Criminology. The questions that usually come out is “why do people commit crime? ” or “What makes countries more prone to crime than other?
” These theories serve as the guide of practice and a protocol to assist the implementation of law and reading of crimes (Vito, Maahs & Holmes, 2007 p. 14). Most of the time, the theories of criminology are used in order to explain the rationale behind the occurrences of a criminal act, which usually involve integration of various theoretical association. Moreover, since, theoretical frameworks of criminology derive its composition primarily on psychological aspect, the understanding of human action; motives for action and rationale are very well identified. Scope & Limitations
The problem imposed in the study is the contrasting image that occurs in the family wherein heroin addiction persists in the daughter of an anti-heroin campaign personnel, which also considers the blind eye or probable toleration of the mother herself. The study shall investigate the scenario by analysis and interpretation through the application of criminal theoretical frameworks related to the study. Theoretical framework shall involve mainly three domains, particularly biological, psychoanalytic and social aspect. The following are the objectives of the study proposed in this situational analysis.
These objectives shall be the guiding protocol in the over-all study; hence, considered as the study limitations a well. a. To be able to utilize various theoretical frameworks in the integration process aiming to explain the occurrence of the imposed situation b. To be able to come up with the explanations and possible future implications via the integration of theoretical explanations obtained from the theories utilized. Discussion In the course of our study, let us examine first the rationale distinction of heroin use, which serves as the primary comprehensible cues that will be utilized in the course study.
The argument mainly in this situation is the use of heroin by a teenage daughter, who is expected to have established and stricter stand against heroin abuse as due to her familial background, and the blind eye of the mother that progressed for a very long time. The argument mainly involves suppression and denial of situation on the part of the mother, while rejection and projection of systems of attention on the part of the daughter. Heroin, the most abused Opioid in the United States, is a synthetically manufactured drug that possesses morphine-like pharmacologic activity.
It has a poor oral activity; therefore, abusers often begin by smoking the drug. As the abuser becomes tolerant to the drug, she begins to use the drug by IV injection. When the abusers can no longer find a site for IV injection, they start subcutaneous administration, also known as “skin-popping”. Pure heroin is very expensive and dangerously powerful. For these reasons, street heroin is usually mixed with fillers, such as sugars, starches, or quinine, resulting in a mixed substance that contains only 1% to 10% heroin (Aschenbrenner & Venable, 2005 p.
102). Theoretical Proposition Differential Association theory or Social Learning Theory, wherein psycho-cognitive and analytic observations are implemented, proposes that criminal associations and normative conflict vary across community types. The concept of this theory states that delinquency is learned just as all other forms of behavior are learned. It implies that Different Association Theories are those associated in various factors such as changing community, the individual itself, the environment and family upbringing.
This is one of the theoretical frameworks that explain the behavior of the teenage daughter in the side of behavioral alteration due to environmental factors. One of the probable causes of the behavior is the home environment, which greatly influenced the progression of criminal behavior through upbringing. Note that the patriarchal image is most of the time unavailable while the matriarch remains present in the house physically but maintains an absent awareness of the case progression.
Hence, deviant behavior of the individual in terms of heroin addiction grows due to the absence of disciplinary forces (Dennis & Neff, 2007). Strain theory is another proposed theoretical framework in this argument. The theory of Strain suggests that a key motivational factor in delinquency and misconduct is strain, which is some perceived or actual state of discomfort. The strain of pursuing goals within diverse opportunity structures may lead to adaptations such as crime, delinquency, and other deviant behavior (Hoffman 2003).
In application of the scenario implicated, there has been no noted physical strain due to the absence of disciplinary committee in the household; however, psychological strain is indeed present unconsciously projected from the anti-heroin campaign of the patriarch. As the psychoanalytic theory implies, Sigmund Freud identifies possible reflection of deviance behavior from the conscious to unconscious mind, which later manifests if suppression of such deviancies has been revoked (Siegel, 2004 p. 71).
Unconscious mind is a very powerful absorbent of the suppressed consciousness, which pertains to factual or evident knowledge involved, seen mainly on the matriarchal knowledge suppression. As according to strain theoretical application with integration of psychoanalytic theory, the mother might be suppressing the said intelligence over her daughter’s heroin abuse due to the fear of creating further conflicts between the father and the her sibling, especially knowing that her husband is engaged in an anti-heroin campaign (Hoffman 2003).
Another theoretical framework to explain the situation causalities is the social control theory. The argument holds that criminal behavior results from an absence of social control. The idea; however, opposes the differential association theory, claiming that the idea that an individual must be taught crime in intimate, personal groups greatly. The social bond in this theoretical framework explains four different components, particularly attachment to others, commitment to conventional line of action, involvement in conventional activities, and belief in moral order (Sutherland etal, 1992 p.
99). It is evident that the attachment of the daughter is mainly absent in either the patriarchal or matriarchal side; since, the father is usually not around while the mother possesses no open and free communications with her daughter. Hence, the moral order of the individual is greatly distorted due to the absence of such essential personnel. Lastly, the theory to be utilized involves the concept of social conflict theory, which mainly emphasizes the arousal of conflict as the primary condition to start-off a crime.
The conflicts and arguments created by the social environment trigger the occurrence of deviant behavior. In the scenario imposed, the social environment produces psychological conflicts due to the insufficiency of behavioral control and surveillance. The parental aspect is inadequate hence, deviations arise due to the conflict that social parenting is almost non-evident. Conclusion
In the conclusion of this study, it has been noted that the lack of parental supervision and the absence of disciplinary committee is the primary cause of the deviancy of heroin addiction occurring in the individual. The argument mainly is in triadic proposition between the daughter’s heroin addiction, mother’s suppressive supervision and father’s conflicting campaign. Reference Aschenbrenner, D. S. , & Venable, S. J. (2005). Drug Therapy in Nursing.
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Hoffman, J. P. (2003, March 1). A contextual analysis of differential association, social control, and strain theories of delinquency. Social Forces, Holmes, R. M. , Maahs, J. R. , & Vito, G. F. (2007). Criminology: Theory, Research, And Policy. Jones and Bartlett Publisher. Siegel, L. J. , & Senna, J. J. (2004). ntroduction to Criminal Justice. Thomson Wadsworth. Sutherland etal, E. H. (1992). Principles of Criminology. Rowman Altamira