Offences Types Criminal Law Analysis Paper Example

Inchoate offenses generally refer to the act of preparing for or seeking to commit another crime. These offenses occur when the intended crime is not perpetrated and require the defendant to have the specific intent to commit the underlying crime. Offenses against persons include: Battery—intentionally or recklessly causing bodily harm to another or intentionally causing physical contact with another in a rude, insulting or angry manner; may be against a law enforcement officer, domestic or sexual. Most are Class A violations.

Assault—intentionally placing another person in reasonable apprehension of immediate bodily harm. Assaults are Class C violations; assault of a law enforcement officer is a Class A. Other offenses against persons are unlawful interference with firefighters, Class B violation; unlawful restraint, Class A; mistreatment of a confined person, Class A; violating order of protection; and criminal defamation. Crimes against property are larceny, embezzlement and false pretenses. Larceny may be grand or petit y, depending on the stolen property’s value. Grand larceny is commonly a felony, while petit larceny is a misdemeanor.

Embezzlement is when a person with lawful possession of another’s money or property fraudulently coverts that money or property to their own use. Theft by false pretenses is when an individual secures title to another’s property by knowingly making false representations—spoken or written—with intent to defraud the victim. Public morality refers to a society’s moral and ethical standards that are enforced by law, police or social pressure, and applied to public life, content of the media and to conduct in public places. Often it means regulating sexual matters (i. e. , prostitution, homosexuality), and matters of dress, nudity and pornography.

Public order offenses include: treason, riot or disorderly conduct; intimidation; authority to regulate firearms; possession/use of weapons; possession of weapon/destructive device in pubic building or court facility; sale/transfer of firearms; discharging weapons; possessing body armor; and racketeering. There are three basic types of alcohol offenses: drunken driving; illegal liquor production, sale, and distribution; and public drunken behavior. Drug offenses are violations of criminal laws prohibiting the production, use, and distribution (or sale) of illicit drugs, such as cocaine, crack, heroin, LSD, marijuana, and PCP.

These offenses also apply to unauthorized use of prescription drugs. Public health offenses include (but are not limited to): smoking in public (i. e. , meetings, publicly-owned buildings, restaurants, hospitals, public transportation); reuse of containers; spitting in public; interference with water flow; and public cruelty to animals. Environment offenses include littering; illegal transportation, treatment, storage or disposal of hazardous wastes; water pollution; and oil spills.

Justice offenses include: interfering with assaults on, or killing of Federal judges and prosecutors; bribing Federal public officials and witnesses; conspiracy to injure or intimidate citizens because of their exercise or possibility of exercise of Federal right; intimidating or retaliating against individuals on account of their serving or possibly serving as a grand or petit juror in a Federal court; conspiracies to commit any offense against the United States, or to prevent or retaliate in response to the lawful discharge of the duties of Federal officers; contempt of court; false statements and concealment of material facts before Federal departments and agencies; perjury, subornation of perjury, and false declarations before grand juries and courts; and interfering with the administration of the Internal Revenue laws.