Criminal justice current topics

The potential of terrorist attack in America is there and will always be there. The truth is that America has been more vulnerable to terrorist activities than any other country. However, in the present times, this vulnerability has been greatly reduced since the country has improved its international relationships and has changed from being governed by principles of conservatism only. The country is governed by leaders who respect and appreciate liberalism and conservatism. With such leaders conflict with international communities and other individuals has a lower chance of emerging.

Terrorism activities occur mainly as a result of conflict between individuals or nations. Most of them are as a result of political leaders infringing the rights of certain communities or religion and particularly Islam. The current political leaders tend to be guided by liberalism thereby caring more about the plight of poor individuals. However, all this does not mean that America is safe from future terrorist attack. There is still a significantly higher chance of occurrence of terrorism in America.

In the present America, future terrorist attack is not the only pressing issue facing the law enforcement agencies but is among the two most pressing issues. The American government has invested many funds in the law enforcement agencies thereby equipping them with the necessary tools for prevention of terrorism. They have learned from previous terrorist attacks which have led to loss of many lives and thus are investing more efforts and funds in the prevention of future terrorist attacks. Another issue pressing the law enforcement agencies is future inflation in domestic crime rate.

Domestic criminal activities have been increasing in most of the major cities. However, at present times the law enforcement agencies have invested much of their efforts to reduce the rate of criminal activities but at a slow pace thereby making it vulnerable to future rapid inflation. 1) Do you believe that the threat of a future terrorist attack is the most pressing issue facing law enforcement in America today? Genitalia-based placement will be the best option for classifying the transgendered inmates and not the identity-based one. In identity based place, males will be mixed females thereby leading to cases of pregnancies and rape.

There will be increased cases of pregnancies as a result of sexual relationships and this could lead to congestion in the prison. In addition to that, prisons do not provide a safe and healthy environment for pregnant mothers. This could therefore lead to children being born with deformities. Consequently, rape cases will increase in the prisons as more women or men will become rape victims. Abortion cases will also increase as a result of pregnancy due to rape. This will therefore overload the prison health facilities as a result of more people requiring medical care.

In spite of the problems that will be faced by transgendered inmates in the genitalia-based placement, there will be no pregnancy cases and rape cases will be greatly reduced. Furthermore, the problems as a result of identity-based placement affect the entire prison facilities and particularly the health facilities. For instance, pregnancies in the male prisons will affect adversely the health facilities, given the fact that it has inadequate equipment for provision of healthcare to pregnant mothers as it might not have enough incubators or midwives.

The problems associated with genitalia-based placement are mainly individual and thus not major compared to those from identity-based placement. This is because the health facility is not affected much by the problems which occur in the genitalia-based placement. 2) If you were the warden of a prison, would you make housing assignments for transgendered inmates using genitalia-based placement or identity-based placement? Why? The three areas that required greater openness and accountability include; government information, immigration process and the justice system.

American people need to know what goes on in the government and how the government makes decisions. The government has been secretive in sharing information to the public and even in some cases manipulated the information to suit its needs. The government website contains little information on matters concerning war on terror and on government businesses. In sharing information the governments needs to improve its website and avoid manipulating information for it to be accountable and open. Through the website, council sessions, meetings in the White House, among others will be accessible to the American people.

By accessing the government website, American people will know when the decisions are being made, how they are made and also whether their interests are being considered in the decisions made. The immigration process is crucial in the fight against terrorism. The process has not been fair to all individuals due to the increased bribery and nepotism cases. The process needs to be transparent in order to reduce the number of terrorists getting into the country. This is because most terrorists get in into the country illegally while others come as visitors or immigrants.

With an open and transparent immigration process, cases of bribery and nepotism will be reduced and this will in turn reduce the number of terrorists getting into the country. All offenders including terrorists go through the justice system. Therefore, with a justice system that is not transparent, some terrorists will be set free and hence be a national security risk. Furthermore, the justice system is responsible for deportation of individuals who have overstayed their visa and those who are a security risk to the country.

With a transparent justice system such individuals should be deported immediately; otherwise their court hearings will be done in secret and are then allowed to stay in the country. Consequently, there have been cases of individuals from one community being in excessive number in detention. In making the current justice system more transparent, internal changes are essential so that court hearings are conducted in a fair and open manner and also members of certain communities are not discriminated. 3) Legal experts have urged the government to amend its tactics on the

war on terror so that there is more transparency. What are the three areas in which greater openness and accountability are recommended? Why are these important? Future terrorist attacks require much effort from the public and private safety agencies. The current practice for emergency response has potential gaps and lapses which make it ineffective. In order to improve the response to future terrorist attacks a more focused, integrated approach is required involving both the public and private sector entities thereby ensuring provision of a broader array of personnel and resources.

In addition to that the approach should put more emphasis on preparedness and prevention of future terrorist attacks (Henry & King, 2004). Consequently, a more effective, strategic and operational process is also needed in curbing future terrorist attacks and the process should be based on the Compstat crime control management model. Since this model is considered to be highly effective, the process will provide accurate and timely analysis of terrorist intelligence and an effective tactical and strategic response to a wide variety of events concerning weapons of mass destruction (WMD).

Additionally, the process will ensure rapid deployment of the necessary resources and personnel and provide a relentless follow-up thereby assuring a more effective and integrated response to future terrorist attacks (Henry & King, 2004). 4) What suggestions do Henry and King make to improve the response of public safety agencies to future terrorist attacks? Assaults Transgendered inmates are usually more vulnerable to physical and sexual assaults. This is because they behave in a manner which is contrary to their genitals.

Sexual violence on the transgendered inmates occurs mainly in the male prisons. This can be attributed to physical and emotional strengths of the transgendered inmate. Females have lower physical strength compared to males; hence transgendered inmates in male prison will have low physical strength since their characters are more feminine. Because of their physical weakness, they become more vulnerable to violence. Additionally, in the prisons they are individuals who hate and find transgender and other transsexuals to be abnormal.

Because of much hatred, these individuals assault the transgendered inmates as way relieving their hatred or to transform them to become normal. Psychological damage People need to be treated and respected the way they are whether male or female. Females will want to be treated as females while males as males. This therefore implies that individuals are satisfied when they are appreciated by their identity and not by their physical body structure. This is because females behave feminine while males are masculine. When a male is treated like a female, his ego is lowered and this could damage him psychological.

This is the same case, with transgendered inmates they are being treated as members of the wrong gender. They therefore feel that they are not respected and appreciated as members of the society thereby leading to psychological damages. Inhibition of rehabilitation Prisons are supposed to be places for rehabilitating individuals who have committed crime. Hence, are required to be peaceful and educative to the inmates in order for them be transformed for the better. However, when an inmate is facing problems in the prison, chance of that inmate transforming for the better is lowered.

Transgendered inmates encounter many problems in the prisons such as physical assaults, sexual violence, and emotional damages, among others thereby making it difficult for them to become rehabilitated. Additionally, the fact that there is no law in place which can protect them makes the problems worse since they have no place to get assistance. This therefore makes rehabilitation difficult for them since the law does not care about their needs. 5) Discuss at least three problems faced by transgendered inmates. In terms of gender, women are treated as the weak part and thus require affirmative action to increase their strength.

However, in my opinion all individuals regardless of their gender have their weaknesses and strengths. Women have their strengths and weaknesses and so do men. However, the elimination of affirmative action might affect the administration of justice for women adversely. This is because a large number of women will be exposed to discrimination, harassment, illiteracy and many others. When a woman reports a case of sexual harassment, the case is decided on her favor in most cases thereby reducing to a large extent the occurrence of such incidences.

This is because offenders already know the outcome of such an offense and hence avoids it. However, with the elimination of affirmative action the outcome of such cases will not be easily predicted or predetermined since the court decisions will not be controlled by gender preference. This could therefore lead to increased cases of harassment and discrimination against women. This is because offenders will not be scared enough to avoid committing the offenses. In addition to that concrete evidence will be required for the court to make a ruling and this could lead to some offenders being sent free because of insufficient evidence.

Consequently, illiteracy level in women might increase as a result of few women being admitted into the learning institutions. In most cases, men excel in academics as they score higher grades when compared to those of women. Because of limited capacity in the learning institutions majority of women will be locked out and hence will not be admitted in colleges because of the high admission grades required. Consequently, with high illiteracy level in women, most women will be unemployed since they do not have the required educational qualities.

Additionally, even with the required educational qualities, some employers will not employ them as they would prefer men of similar or even lower educational qualities. This will therefore increase the number of women who are unemployed. 6) How might the elimination of affirmative action impact the administration of justice for women? Word count: 1822. Reference list Henry V. E. and King D. H. , (2004). Improving Emergency Preparedness and Public- Safety Responses to Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, Vol. 4, No. 1. pp. 11-35(25).