Over the years, the demand for criminal justice has been shifting higher and higher in the society. This has mainly been contributed by changing human needs and ethical consideration for harmonious coexistence in the society. Criminal justice is the system of practices and organizations that are employed by governments in maintaining social control, preventing and controlling crime in the society, and enforcing penalties and rehabilitation efforts to those who violate the laws (Poulin & Charles, 2004).
They are guided by the frameworks of laws that protect human rights. 2. Assess and analyze the policing philosophy of Sir Robert Peel Scholars highly regard the policing philosophy of Robert peel as it gives the platform for effective application of criminal justice in the society. Poulin & Charles (2004) argues that the basic mission for the police in the society is to prevent crime and disorder. Without this notion coming from the police management and the police themselves, most of the police turn into bribes and corruption.
The principles are further applauded by the fact that they recognize the need for public approval to determine their efficiency and capability to deliver their services. Besides, the philosophy demands the police to uphold integrity and sanctity of the people they serve. As evidenced by many cases of confrontations in US, the degree of cooperation between the people and police is dependent on the extent of force used by the police. Most of the people generally feel insecure and regard the police as the immediate enemy when excessive force is used.
Though public fail to understand the essence of police in the society, Peel philosophy makes it clear that the police should be approached as other members of the society but with as different role necessary for ensuring strong cohesion within the society. Most of the criminal activities in the society take place due to the widening gap between the police and the community. According to Poulin & Charles (2004), this is solely to blame on the police break up with people through non partiality application of their systems necessary for ensuring their interlink with the people in the society.
However, the philosophy emphasis that the police should only use force when all the other alternative means have failed and the test of police being the absence of crime may not be directly applicable in the society. Crime in the society is led by aspects like drug abuse which compromise the reasoning ability of different people in US. Besides, crime is not static and should be therefore be measured by levels of decline as opposed to total absence. Besides, the philosophy puts so much emphasis on the police and omits much of the defiant society that deliberately breaks the law.
3. Why does the America system of law enforcement so aggressively move toward the public policing model in the late 19th century? Though private policing has strongly entered into the American system, the direct incline to the public policing model in the late 19th century was very strong. Most often, the private police are inclined to protection of personal and corporate interest. Besides, it was viewed by most people with contempt and basically associates with higher social status in the society.
On the other hand, the public policing edged itself a direct niche as direct provider of security services to all the people in the society irrespective of social class. As a result, it is easy for all people to be served indiscriminately by the public police. Besides, they derive respects from their uniforms which directly deter criminals even by sight. Since inception, public policing operates in a proactive mode towards the society law and order issues. Arguably, most of the public police servants are directly responsible to the society at all time.
The situation in America at the end of the 19th century demanded cooperation between the people and police in the society which was necessary for ensuring harmony and efficiency in the system (Poulin & Charles, 2004). Besides, the public police enforce the judicial law in the society upon which the government operates on. Governed by Robert Peel philosophy, effective application of public system was the only model that would conterminously apply law to all people without any sense of prejudice and feeling of witch haunt. Conclusion
Criminal justice should be applied in harmony and cohesion in the society. According to the philosophy of Robert Peel, the police should assume a strong harmonious and humble approach to their work necessary for effective interlink with the community. The community policing on the other hand should be carefully articulated and means of integrating it with the private policing worked out for a better society. Reference list Poulin,CK. & Charles, P. N. (2004). Private Security and Public Safety: A Community-Based Approach. New York: Pearson Prentice Hall.