Punishing a criminal has been implemented from the time immemorial and since the human civilization started. In the preliminary stage, severe punishments were imposed for civil offences. There was no mercy. The punishments were imposed by the whims and wills of the kings. A single theory cannot explain the various types of criminality and the related legal issues. Therefore the modern study of crime favors an interdisciplinary view to find out the relationship between various fields of study.
For example Biological theories of crime is having a stress over the factors such as physiological, biochemical, and genitical factors, however they regards the broad span of social or environmental factors. (Crime Causation: The Field – Bibliography). Similarly sociologists also refer the significance of psychological, biological, and related theories of crime. Therefore the modern scenario is encouraging an integrative approach of crime causation. Several efforts are made by governments to reduce crime and to maintain criminal justice.
Through the system of criminal justice the governments are enabled to control crime and to sanction those who violate law, with criminal penalties. The primary agencies entrusted with the responsibility of law enforcement are the police, prosecutors, courts, defence attorneys, and local jails and prisons. With the aim of reducing or eliminating the risk of individual criminal participation, the initiative or policy of crime prevention is followed. Such policy includes government and community based programs designed for reducing the incidents of risk factors correlated with criminal participation.
As per the functionalist theory of crime, crime is learned through social interaction. This theory also opines that structural stain within society is resulting in crime. This theory suggests that due to the functional aspects of crime it is difficult to eradicate crime. (Crime and criminal justice). Sociological perspective of functionalism examines the society through a functional framework. The eminent sociologist Emile Durkheim was the chief proponent of functionalism. (Sociological perspectives: Functionalism). According to the concept of functionalism, everything in a society serves a purpose.
As per the views of the functionalists the crime is observed as a social nuisance all over the world and crime serves several purposes. According to the views of the functionalist a lot of job opportunities in the fields of police administration and judicial services are created to deal with the crime. Crime as a social phenomenon is serving the purpose making the communities to rally together around a common purpose. (Sociological perspectives: Functionalism). All aspects of the society and social issues such as the poverty, hunger, slavery, and other human right issues are serving certain purposes in a society.
References: 1. (Crime Causation: The Field – Bibliography) Retrieved March12, 2009, from the World Wide Web: http://law. jrank. org/pages/783/Crime-Causation-Field. html 2. (Sociological perspectives: Functionalism) Retrieved March12, 2009, from the World Wide Web: http://www. helium. com/items/1286067-sociological-perspectives-functionalism 3. (Crime and criminal justice) Retrieved March12, 2009, from the World Wide Web: http://www. faculty. rsu. edu/~felwellIntrod/Presentations/Ch08. ppt.