History of Criminal justice Paper Example

Criminal justice can be defined as a system in which organizations employ the use of practices and legislations provided by the state in order to maintain some kind of order in terms of social discipline and sanctity. Those agencies that are universally given the responsibility to enforce laws are the police, correctional centers and the courts through the judicial system. Individual rights are applied in the process in order to minimize violation of human rights but this has not been adhered to in the past.

In the past criminal justice has taken many forms including cultural mores of the society in which other communities have adopted community policing and religious approaches. This paper will therefore look into all aspects of criminal justice in the society and what can be done by governments to better it. History of criminal justice The current forms of criminal justice have evolved through a series of transformation starting with policing reforms, sophistication of crimes and new development in changing customs.

In the past, the common forms of punishments were exile and payment of ransoms or funds to ‘cool’ down the offended people. If anybody could not afford to pay what was required, harsh penalties were imposed on them which included; execution, flogging, corporal punishment and mutilation. (Walker, 1992) Criminal justice is an aspect of crime psychology that is directed in terms of understanding the causes, prevention, analysis and study of the whole issue of crime. With increase in crime, terrorism, misuse of drugs and rape cases among others there are numerous challenges facing criminal justice organizations.

The need to cope with such challenges is demanding and requires much dedication by the organizations in order to ensure that justice prevails. It is appropriate for criminal justice organizations to depend on well trained, committed, ethical, and qualified professionals in dealing with the rising cases of crime and the enforcement of laws that governs our society as well as protecting constitutional privileges and civil liberties of individuals. (Sampson and Grove, 1989) Over the past years crime has increased due to various reasons that include poverty, misuse of drugs, and fighting for power among others.

Many countries have come up with laws that enable the treatment of criminals without harsh conditionality. Although, the offenders are entitled to particular constitutional laws, they have various rights in their lives including; the right to be tried by the jury, to be cross-examined and the right to an immediate trial. Since the society has developed a growing concern over the criminal behavior which is ever increasing, the justice system is urged to provide a delinquent preventive measure that will be aimed at preventing the young from indulging in criminal activities.

(Mirchandani, 1998) Rehabilitation and corrections Psychoanalysis and rehabilitation normally involves the teaching and training the persons who are addicted to a particular behavior to stop the defective behavior and try to become acceptable members of the society. Therefore under this, the society is given the responsibility of assisting these addicts or criminals by helping them to get hope through various programs that they will be educated thus helping them to heal their bodies and mind.

The strengths associated with rehabilitation policies are that the addict will achieve through these Programs education which allows the offender an opportunity to re-enter into the society as a responsible and productive citizen. For example, the people who undergo rehabilitation programs are normally allowed to receive counseling and guidance. For example a rehabilitation program may involve the offenders in doing community work, such as cleaning the environment and activities that they think suits to the foundation of their interests. This will make them appreciate who they are and accept their presence and roles in the particular society.

(Mirchandani, 1998) The potency for rehabilitating criminals is that there is always a collective supervision that will be able to provide an environment favorable enough to meet the special needs of the offenders which will help them to join the society newly as responsible and respected persons. However, rehabilitation is prone to some weaknesses which hinder the process of trying to help the offenders to be good and reliable people in the society. For example, the criminals or offenders subjected to rehabilitation programs feel isolated in the society and thus will not corporate during the entire process.

They view themselves as rejected people in the society who are treated cruelly. These aspects make them to feel unworthy in the society and hence after the rehabilitation programs they don’t change but instead continue with bad behavior that they used to engage themselves in. Also another weakness is lack of government support in supporting rehabilitation programs, for example laxity in funding the programs thus few drug addicts and criminal offenders are subjected to such programs. This has resulted to seeking donors who can fund the programs, an activity which is difficult because it’s very hard to find willing donors.

(Walker, 1992) Policy Creation and Implications Many polices have been put in place with an aim of addressing the issue of criminal justice in our society today. The main policy implication that makes the criminals to be hard cores is always the length of time that the criminals spend in the jails. When they are released for example and directed to attend rehabilitation programs they feel to be wasted because they think that by serving in jail for a long period they are isolated in the society and others may get involved in revenging activities which may cause them more danger of being punished. (Walker, 1992)

With any aspect of criminal justice, the affected i. e. the criminal or the offender serve his or her sentence in jail for along time, whereby after the completion of the sentences he/she is sent back to the same environment he used to be before he/she committed crime. For example, in the cases where the offender is a girl who is in prison, she happens to undergo tougher physical and sexual abuse than if the offender is said to be a boy. With longer prison sentences the offender has nothing that will guarantee him protection against the offence he commits which sometimes ends up wasting all his life in jail.

Due to the limited informational, educational sources in the prisons, the offender finds it hard to accept change in his mode of life and the behavior that he is addicted in him/her. This means that there are no correction measures which makes the person to become devastated psychologically thus feeling uneasy and may seek to live where he need to help himself escape such a feeling of loneliness and lack of social support through which he may decide to pay any price and sacrifice self-esteem thus forfeiting his life. (Walker, 1992) Criminal justice organizations and the courts

The courts serve as the venue where justice is administered to those who found to be guilty. Those critical players in the justice system are; police, prosecutors, judges and magistrates. Criminal justice organizations have the responsibility of protecting members of the society through the systems of prevention and law enforcement. Because of the increased population there is an increase in crime all over the globe and the criminal justice organizations including police have to protect the whole society by ensuring that they live in peace and harmony.

Due to this increase in population the police force and other organizations of justice do not fight the prevalence of crime effectively and efficiently because of shortage of the professionals to deal with such crimes. Indeed research shows that the ratio of criminal justice professionals to members of the public is wanting since in some countries it has been reported that the ratio is one police officer for about three hundred people. Much need to be done and encouragement of recruitment of more law enforcers should be encouraged, but funding also has to be considered as a challenge to such recruitment of the law enforcers.

(Garland, 2002) Integration plan and developments for criminal justice In some cases when the offender in prison is under solitary confinement, the person and especially if young will suffer disruption of a normal mental function that is normally caused by threats, lack of sleep, starvation and fear of death. Though the incarceration form was meant to encourage a person to confront his own consciousness, it has only led to the some offenders being stressed because they are under jail conditions that are always cruel and not effective. (Akers, 2000)

The governments have big roles to play in helping these criminals therefore, it should come up with institutions that will help fight delinquency, these institutions will help the offenders by training or re-training them so that they may be able to discover and solve their problems in their daily life. Therefore the government should employ specialists who are supposed to build trust and friendship with the affected people. Also due to delays in making judgments in courts have led to many offenders being in custody without being found guilty.

This in turn has resulted to individuals failing to accept being rehabilitated and they end practicing revenge activities because they stayed for a longer time in prison. (Mirchandani, 1998) Budgets and expenditures Governments are using a lot of money to handle issues of criminal justice. The U. S federal government has been able to allocate more than 2% of its entire fiscal budget to fight crime in the country. In a bid to develop correction centers and other prisons, which will serve in behavior rectification, more prison workers and facilities are being set up for that purpose.

Most of the expenditure is directed on the use of rehabilitation and paying wages for criminal justice. (Wolfgang, 1990) Previous research has shown that the annual wages for correctional officers differ according to the state and the position of the officers themselves. Available data indicate that for most states in the U. S, the correctional officers earn a starting salary of approximately $14,600 as reported in 2005. New officers get a mandatory ten-week probation period after which they get promoted to a different level i. e. a full correctional officer’s position.

It is at this class that the typical salary for the officers can rise up to $ 32,000. (Sampson and Grove, 1989) Challenges in criminal justice systems The main challenge of criminal justice organizations is the thorny matter of public policy and hard questions of justice in the wake of terrorism that have caused uneasiness among many people. The challenge takes the form of development of ineffective criminal justice policy that can fight terrorism. There has been a growing concern on how the judicial systems handle the cases of terrorism.

For example, there have been allegations that some people have been accused of participating in the September 11th attack and yet in the real sense they were not involved. Such confusions arise because of the existing structures that deal with terrorism and review of such regulations should be enforced in order to avoid such loopholes. (Garland, 2002) There is also the challenge of providing for the punishment. There has been a growing concern over what kind of punishment should be subjected to criminal offenders.

The issue of punishment have took center stage of late and there has been growing debate on what kind of punishment should be subjected to various offenders for example, the murderers, robbers, and the rapists. Criminal justice organizations face the challenge of coming up with reasonable charges that the criminal offenders have to be subjected to when they are found guilty. Different groups of people and especially the human rights activists differ with the kind of charges administered and they argue that some are unrealistic and cannot be applied in the contemporary world for example hanging those found guilty with rape cases.

(Wolfgang, 1990) The other main challenge that is experienced by the criminal justice organizations is the provision of services to crime victims. There has been wide speculation of how the criminal justice fights crime. For example, people argue that police always respond late when they are called upon to fight crime, they are always the last to arrive to the crime scene and there help are not felt because they always arrive late when the activity has been done and the culprits has escaped.

Such challenge is escalated by lack of machination to deal with crime effectively, for example, lack of enough police vans for emergencies and lack of good communication systems in the force. (Garland, 2002) Investigations and the criminal justice issues The issue of investigation by the criminal justice organization is one pressing one that contributes to addressing criminal justice. This implies that the investigators involved should be highly equipped with skills, training, and knowledge that will help them in their investigation and hence come up with desired and best methods of investigation that will be able to identify criminals.

The use of technologies in curbing criminal activities is of prime importance but also with other technologies criminals can use them in fostering their criminal activities and protecting themselves from being apprehended by the law enforcers. So law enforcers have to be equipped with unique technologies that will help them track the criminal activities without much difficulty. (Sampson and Grove, 1989) Judicial systems There is a lot of bureaucracy in judicial systems which have contributed to a lot of inefficiencies in hearing cases related to crime.

There is a big challenge in terms of scheduling hearings which is constantly affected by for example by the absence of one defense team and especially the state representatives. This issue is mostly attributed to multiple accused persons thus delaying the courts hearings procedures. So the criminal judicial organizations have to curb such delays by using methods such as hearing of cases of single accused persons in order to increase the pace of court hearings. Judicial systems lack appropriate sentencing thus there is presence of unfair and illegitimate sentencing of individuals.

The judges are faced with the challenge of providing uniformity and justice when they are giving out their opinions. The issue of focusing on severity of the crime, the height of participation of the offenders, and other justifying factors should be of priority to judges. (Akers, 2000) Technology in criminal justice Technology is one of the issues that have been used in the recent past to fight crime. Sophistication in approaches to crime investigations, handling and prevention can help in criminal justice organizations.

The government and necessary authorities need to use high technology gadgets in order to carry out the criminal justice. To keep the entire community safe has to involve the use of the right technological tools. It goes beyond what the media show in the televisions. The sectors that need to use advanced technological advancement. These sectors include aviation sector, communications and also technology can be incorporated in the courts. There is also electronic crime that is quite prevalent in this twenty first century. Unless technology is advance it will not be easy to deal with criminals.

(Garland, 2002) Law enforcement has to include technology i. e. crime laboratories have to be put in place to detect criminals. It is good for stakeholders to identify the requirements in technological advancement in the criminal justice sector. To support this technological advancement, intensive research has to be done and the stakeholders equipped with the necessary skills. There should be management development in the criminal justice sector to deal with this technological advancement. It is always very surprising that criminals are always far much ahead in technology than the arm of law.

This should not be the case. The government should encourage and support technological advancement in the criminal justice sector. (Sampson and Grove, 1989) Private security 1. Finger print checks In using this technology the relevant authorities like the police usually go at scenes of the crimes on time and get important information. This includes the finger prints of the criminals. This information is accessed on tools used in crime like guns. The police usually use this technology to know the finger prints of the people involved in the crime.

After getting these fingerprints, in case there are suspects then their finger prints are taken and matched with the ones taken at the crime scenes. This makes it very easy to detect criminals involved in the crime. Now the suspects are examined and then taken to jail if guilty. This really helps to alleviate crime in the community. 2. CCTV Cameras CCTV cameras can be installed in any business environment or any organization. These CCTV cameras work twenty four hours and therefore are very effective. They are not limited in the sense that they do not need to be operated manually by anyone.

These cameras screen everything that is happening in the building. When, installed in supermarkets and hypermarkets they make it very easy to detect the shop lifters who carry out such crimes. When these cameras are put in place they can show burglars that commit crimes like theft in institutions like banks. This technology can also be incorporated in the city centers and streets where crime is very prevalent. This helps to know the people who commit crimes such as the bombing of streets or buildings too. This makes it very easy to carry out criminal justice by using the CCTV technology.

This is because the suspects and victims can easily be brought to book. (Sampson and Grove, 1989) Communications There is also the incorporation of information technology in the criminal justice sector. The twenty first century has brought in the use of mobile phones by the public. Nearly everyone owns a mobile phone and so do the criminals too. The suspected mobile phone numbers of the criminals can be noted down. This is a very efficient and effective way of knowing the criminals and also getting to know what they are dealing with.

In such a case the police need to fully identify themselves to the communications vendor and they have to be very confidential so that the personnel in the communications company are not pt into problems. Conclusion Criminal justice is a broad subject that has been debated for a long time and it has been an issue which is problematic to the whole society and governments. The rehabilitation and reintegrating of criminal is seen to be grasped by the society, but most of the attempts of helping the addicted offenders have turned out to be ineffective.

Due to growing concerns over the increased number of criminals, countries have formulated laws that ensure that the criminals involved are restored back to being good people in the society and they have identified rehabilitation policies or program as the best way to nature them. Rehabilitation is widely believed by many to be the principal reason of reducing crime. Reference Akers, R. L (2000): Criminological Theories: Introduction, Evaluation, and Application. 3rd edition; Los Angeles: Roxbury Press, p 458-488

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