Some occurrences may seem to bring with them benefits either to certain specific individuals, a group, organization, state or the world at large. However, this semester’s concept about the “construction” of threats has enlightened me much. Moreover, I have come to understand that despite the fact and perception of many about an incidence that to them may be safe; the same can still hold dreadful effects. More importantly, I noted that careful look into some threat-posing events can have with it advantages.
Besides, I have learnt that the greater multitude may seem not to understand the hidden dangers because they have generalized the situation at hand. Of late, Darfur, a region in Sudan, Africa, has been on the headlines of every other news material and media station. This has been because of the alleged genocide in this area. The government has been accused by the Darfurians for having neglected them and violated the human rights by arming the Janjaweed. Resultantly, this armed group has caused deaths, destructions of villages and also involved in frequent rapes.
These acts have drawn the attention of the entire world, with human rights activist calling for the arrest of the Sudanese President, Omar Al-Bashir by the International Criminal Court (ICC). In addition, this Africa’s largest country is faced with a challenge of being divided into two; the Northern and the Southern Sudan. The United States of America and Europe have greatly supported this splitting of the country but according to some credible sources, this might be catastrophic in the long run.
Middle East news, as reported by Chibli Mallat in “The Daily Star” highlights the dangers that may be emergent if the country splits (Mallat, 2010). He, Chibli warns of the demons of Sudanese secession. Although the ICC had prosecuted the president of Sudan for genocide, which the U. S, supported, Bashir still remained influential in the political arena in Sudan. His induction made many democratic Sudanese nationals fail to vote in the elections thus declaring him a winner despite being a dictator. Bashir’s pretense in politics to retain his presidency, though condoned by international monitors, gave a forecast of the 2011 referendum.
Though liable for genocide sentence, he was left alone so as to save the referendum event which will see through the division of the country into two. However, this division is not only disastrous for the two state that will emerge, but for the entire African continent and probably the Middle East. For instance, this will increase the conflicts at the borders of the states and also foster ethnic enmity. The oil resource that for years has been a struggle will fund these wars, with the south having the greater share since Bashir will still be ruling.
The precedent that Southern Sudan will have laid for being a state under secession will be hazardous especially the Middle East countries, which may in the near future result in a similar follow up. Moreover, the splitting will increase the differences that have been there between the Christians and the Muslims (Mallat, 2010). It will be quite difficult to dissuade the splitting of this country owing to the fact Europe and the U. S. is backing this process. Moreover, federalism is hard to achieve in Sudan since democracy is not there. This leaves us with the sole remedy of removing Bashir from power in order to save Sudan.
However, this is tricky due to his elections charade. As a conclusion, we are left with less to do about the matter but leave the secession to be born and Southern Sudan retain her valuable resources against Bashir’s dictatorial leadership. Questions 1. What is the fighting in Darfur about? The Justice and Equity movement (JEM) and the Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) started their attack towards various government targets in 2003. This was due to Khartoum’s accusations for having favored the Arabs and oppressed the black Africans. The government had neglected them leading to their marginalization.
Fights also continued in Darfur whose basement was the land ownership and the possession of grazing rights between the nomadic Arabs, Zaghawa and Massaleet communities who were Fur resident farmers (David, 2006). Drought cycles had led to shortages in water and pastures for grazing which led to the Darfurians think to have been forsaken and neglected. 2. What are the different opinions by the different components of the ICC about whether genocide has occurred in Darfur? In determining whether or not genocide occurred in Darfur, different International Criminal Court (ICC) components had divergent opinions.
In the views of the Chief prosecutor, the president of Sudan instigated and put into practice a destruction plan towards the inhabitants of Massaleet, Fur and Zaghawa on the bases on their ethnicity. Moreno Ocampo perceives that Bashir had genocide intent. Other human rights activists supported Ocampo and praised him for his courage since this would help in ending impunity and bar crimes. The United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) that had been obliged with peace agreements gave reports that the Khartoum authorities had regularly violated various human rights (Heavens, 2010).
The then United Nations Secretary General gave a conclusion in his report that the militia and forces of the Sudanese government had been involved in attacks, which were indiscriminate, killing many civilians, raping women, forcing displacements and destructed civilian villages. Other panel members highlighted that war crimes and crimes against humanity in Darfur were more or less than genocide (BBC News, 2010). On the contrary, peace negotiators pinned down these views by stating that it the aforesaid officials were becoming an obstacle in realizing peace in Sudan.
Supportively of non-genocide actions, the Sudan government never took actions in pursuit of genocide policy. The then chair of the African Union, Olusegun Obasanjo responded by saying that it was not genocide since he believed that rebellion had arose and in countering this, the government armed another group. This only amounted to a course of conflict as per Obasanjo. Response Paper What were your thoughts about Mamdani’s argument? What have you heard about Darfur? Do you think that there’s more attention to some issues than to others?
Mahmood Mamdani’s argument that Darfur’s situation though having some similarities with that of Iraq, is neither an insurgency nor a counter-insurgency but genocide is credible. Supportively, Darfur, unlike Iraq is not an historical place and politics. The former had no political or civilian connections but had issues with the demands of humanitarianism. In attempts to resolve the tension in the area, more violence erupts instead of diminishing. Though for the benefit of the civilians, ethnic groups are formed that become a stumbling block for peace.
This contracts the Iraq incecence, where the mediation has been fruitful in lowering, to a great percentage, the levels of violence. Darfur is a region in western Sudan that is characterized with frequent, almost daily inter-tribal conflicts and wars. Moreover, this area has over years experienced frequent droughts thus posing a threat to the nomadic Arabs and the Fur, Massaleet and Zaghawa farmers. Due to shortages in grazing pastures and water for the livestock, these tribes resulted into wars which have heated over time (Mamdani, 2007). The government was being accused for having discriminated these tribes on ethnicity bases.
Moreover, it had sent janjaweed militia to cause more afflictions to the Darfur civilians, ranging from village destructions to violation of human rights such as sexual harassments. Due to these militia attacks, many have been displaced thus the numbers of internally displaces people (IDPs) in this region are high. Additionally, various armed tribal groups have been reported to deter peace-restoration attempts and program (BBC News, 2010). Many including the United States and human right groups have more concentrated on the issue of genocide steered by the government.
They have also pushed towards the trials of the suspects in the ICC. On the other hand, attempts to provide essentials, such as security, food and health facilities, to the victims have been neglected. Works Cited BBC News, Q&A: Sudan’s Darfur Conflict, 2010, retrieved on 17th August 2010 from, http://www. un. org/Depts/Cartographic/map/profile/sudan. pdf David, Luban, Calling Genocide by its Rightful Name: Lemkin’s Word, Darfur and the UN Report, 2006, Retrieved on 17 August 2010from http://www. allbusiness. com/legal/4081615-1. html
Heavens, Andrew, ICC Opens Door to Darfur Genocide Charge, 2010, Retrieved on 17 August 2010 from, http://www. alertnet. org/thenews/newsdesk/12652011823. htm Mallat, Chibli, Beware of Sudan’s Secessionist Demons, 2010, Retrieved on17 August 2010 from http://www. dailystar. com. lb/article. asp? edition_id=10&categ_id=5&article_id=117082#axzz0wmyUlb00 Mamdani, Mahmood, The Politics of Naming: Genocide, Civil War, Insurgency , 2007. Retrieved on17 August 2010 from http://www. lrb. co. uk/v29/n05/mahmood-mamdani/the-politics-of-naming-genocide-civil-war-insurgency