Forensic Science is the application of scientific methods to the process of criminal investigation. It is the process by which evidence is uncovered, identified and processed for use in criminal investigations and legal proceedings. It includes the analysis of such items as human DNA, fingerprints, footprints, bullets, blood splatters, guns, stab wounds and various other items of physical, biological and material evidence.
Forensic identification items are used to ensure that no doubt can exist in determining what an object is, how it relates to the crime being investigated, and whether or not it belongs to the individual in question to have been used for the purpose alleged. The jurisdiction under scrutiny is equipped with an immense amount of modern computer software technology used to generate impressions and decipher physical as well as material evidence samples taken from the scene of a crime.
The machinery in place can be used to decipher graphology, latent impression enhancement, physical impression casting and analysis, as well as two-dimensional surface ultraviolet impression analysis. Introduction Forensic Science is the scientific and criminal justice practice of applying science to the process of criminal investigation. Most often referred to as simply “forensics”, forensic science is denotes that use of a wide range of scientific methods relevant to the execution of justice as it relates to determining the facts of and parties involved in a crime.
There are a number of forensic materials to be analyzed in this instance to include: the bloody footprints found in the bar, the tire tracks in the dirt, the handwritten notes that Michelle alleges were written by Joe, and all of the latent prints discovered at the scene of the crime, as the knife has not been stated to have been uncovered.
As it relates to the situation at hand the branch of forensic science in question is a division of forensics referred to as criminalistics, which is the analysis of items relating to criminal investigation to include but not necessarily limited to: evidence impression s like tire tracks or footprints, fingerprints, as well as any biological evidence that may have been uncovered like any blood left at the scene.
The location allotted to the analysis of these materials is our jurisdiction’s crime lab, the area where all forensic evidence is to be analyzed. As the lead Crime Scene Investigator it is my job to ensure that all prints, impressions and biological samples are obtained intact without compromising the evidence before the materials can be handed off to the crime lab and the forensic evidence technicians on call. Forensic Capability Analysis
We are lucky to have such an advanced and well-equipped crime lab as our jurisdiction possesses with machinery and tools in place for the analysis of handwriting samples, in order to decipher the penmanship owner of the letters uncovered at Michelle’s apartment as well as various crime lab machinery in place for the analysis of all prints and impressions found at the scene of the crime. We also have equipment in place to analyze any blood samples left at the scene.
Forensic science as so greatly influence the system of criminal justice by engaging reliable methods of evidence analysis by creating a methodology that takes all of the evidence present and uncovered in a crimes scene investigation and uses it to create a timeline that determines the logical order of events and uses that timeline to determine whether or not the story being told by either the prosecution or defense is feasibly the truth about what may or may not have occurred during the crime.
Our jurisdiction is equipped with software technology used to decipher soil and blood samples taken from the scene of the crime. This machinery takes the clothing of the suspects involved and analyzes any presence of blood or soil on the clothing, placing it against the samples found at the scene of the crime to determine the likelihood of that individual having been involved and to what extent.
Our crime lab has a number of software tools in place to decipher graphology as well as a handwriting analysis expert on staff to determine the validity of the threatening letter that Michelle claims to have received from Joe in the days or months leading up to tonight’s incident. The Script Psychologists’ script analysis software can determine whether or not the letters were written by Joe or another party and what the psychological intent of the allegedly threatening letters was at the time that the letters were drafted.
The jurisdiction’s crime lab has photography enhancement software for the enhancing of impressionistic materials. At the crime scene all impressions believed to have been left during the execution of the crime or while the suspects were fleeing the scene are coned or and then photographed using a special camera that attaches to an appending computer software programs that digitally enhances the print uncovered at the crime scene. Having this software available at the crime lab enables us to undoubtedly place a suspect at the crime scene and assists in proving involvement in the crime itself.
Once the photographs have been taken of the scene where Joe was murdered we can then approach the main suspects Sam and Michele; once we have confiscated the footwear believed to have been worn by the suspects during the crime, we can then use casting materials present in the lab to recreate a footprint using the suspects footwear. Once the cast impression has been made a photograph is taken and the photograph of the cast impression and the print found at the crime scene are both loaded into the computer system and analyzed using the impression enhancing software to determine whether or not the two imprints are a match.
This can be done, with some varying effort, for tire tracks as well as footprint impressions. The crime lab also has tools and techniques available for the retrieval of latent print impressions (fingerprints) from various two-dimensional surfaces. The two most common techniques are the electrostatic and gelatin technique; neither technique is destructive of the crime scene or the impression being lifted, so they are most often used for latent prints to ensure that the materials being processed are not in any way compromised during the investigative process.
A fluorescent powder is used in processing the prints lifted at the crime scene with an ultraviolet light being used to isolate the print for photographic processing. Conclusion As it stands, this was the perfect learning case for our new Prosecutor. There were a number of valid materials recovered from the crime scene that were easily and quickly processed by our crime lab with its basic, yet advanced capabilities in the field of forensic analysis. Reference List Cohen, Frits. Scientific Handwriting Analysis.
National Handwriting Association Article. Retrieved on: June 13, 2009 from: http://www. nha-handwriting. org. uk/Article_5. htm Forensic Science Tools & Techniques. CSI: The Experience. Retrieved on June 13, 2009 from: http://www. hmns. org/files/marketing/CSI. 4. ForensicScienceToolsTechniques. pdf Impression Evidence at the Crime Scene. West Virginia State Police Laboratory Field Manual. 8th Edition. Retrieved on June 12, 2009 from: http://www. wvstatepolice. com/impression. pdf John Ashcroft, Deborah J. Daniels, and Sarah V.
Hart. Education and Traiing in Forensic Science: A Guide for Forensic Science Laboratories, Educational Institutions, and Students. United States Department of Justice. National Institute of Justice Special Report. Released June 2004 and Retrieved from: www. doj. gov in June 2009. White, Peter. Crime Scene to Court: The Essentials fo Forensic Science. Royal Society of Chemistry (2004), pp. 86-107. James, Stuart H. and Nordby, Jon J. Forensic Science: An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques. CRC Press (2005).