Crime Reduction and Prevention

With the changing nature of societal structure and the fabric of the social family, criminal activities are at the increase. However, the basis of their prevention calls various theoretical perspectives that address different social circumstances that lead to crime involvement and increase. By and large, the criminal activities in Los Angeles can adequately be addressed by various theoretical approaches and paradigms. Lifestyle theory argues to acknowledge victimization that not everyone posses equal/same lifestyle.

Consequently, specific lifestyles provide more exposure towards risks than the others. Accordingly, there is a varied probability towards criminal victimization and that it varies with space, social setting and time. Since some lifestyles expose persons to a greater proximity in risks of harm and criminal implications, persons adhering to this theory would concur with such lifestyles which are less illuminative in causing risks and crime consequences (Larry, 1992) Rational choice perspective is the argument that human beings are rational and that their rationality will involve an end in calculation.

People have the freedom of choice in their behavior, either deviance or conforming depending on the motives of such rational calculations. Every personal choice in the way of behavioral activity depends on the understanding and perception about punishment and potential pain which comes from the judgment of an action that violates social contracts and social good. According to this theory, individuals will choose the behavioral patterns that are positive and that will wage low levels of punishment. Consequently, the level of crime reduces relative to the degree of rationality in the choice of actions and behaviors (Edwin, 1993)

Deterrence theory is the view that people engages in deviant and criminal activities if they do fear punishment and apprehension. Therefore, law enforcement and norms are implemented and designed towards producing and maintaining an image that disruptive and negative behaviors should ultimately receive punishment and attention. Accordingly, people who would fear the punishment and apprehension consequences of criminal activities would not involve in the same. Consequently, the levels of crimes would reduce if a fear of the punitive consequences put on such crimes is bound coherently (Larry, 1992)

Cognitive theory is the belief that the thoughts of an individual are the basic determinants of his/her behavior and emotions which guides towards his/her personality. It argues that thoughts precede actions. It is a good model towards preventing criminality in that an individual would perceive concrete morally upright thoughts that would help model his/her behavior. Positive thoughts aimed at building a positive personality would imply crime prevention and reduction (Edwin, 1993) Reference Edwin, pfuhl & Stuart, Henry (1993) The Deviance Process, 3rd ED. Aldine de Gruter Larry, Siegel (1992) Criminology. 4th ed. New York, west publishing