Crime Prevention In United States

Crime Prevention makes an attempt to reduce victimization, crime and criminals from the society. The efforts that are made by government to reduce crime and to enforce the law, and maintaining the criminal justice is specifically part of the definition of Crime Prevention. Crime prevention is also recognized as a policy which reduces or eliminates the level of victimization and also aims to reduce the risk to the individuals and the society in criminal activities.

The incidents of risk factors correlated with criminal participation is expected to reduce as the government and the various other associations are taking steps to rate the level of victimization, as well as efforts are made to change perceptions. There are various prestigious commissions and research associations, such as the United Nations, World Health Organization, The United States National Research Council, and many more which have analyzed through their research on the ways to achieve the lower rates of interpersonal crime that are committed in the society .

They all have agreed that while communities must take the lead and the belief gets reinforced when they quote the regular feedback from the law enforcement officers that the communities which are engaged in preventing the society from crimes and criminals have less number of crimes committed in their societies.

The United States National Research council, with its brief history on this theory of crime prevention has faced through the debates over its concepts on micro or macro level, criticisms of its assumptions, and disquieting research findings, there is still the volume of research and the acknowledgement of an intellectual debate and the routine activities approach that continues to expand.

This paper aims to analyze the crime prevention programs in the US, explains few associated definitions, critical evaluation on the thought of how crime is being prevented from happening, the reason if success for the various research centers and the safety measures which are to be followed by the general public so that they can prevent themselves from the mishaps. Suggested recommendation on crime prevention

United Nations, World Health Organization, The United States National Research Council, and many more research organizations have come up with the standard documents like World Health Organization guide etc which complements with The World Report on crime and criminal activities which triggers the Assembly Resolution for the Government to implement recommendations regarding the crime prevention. There are some of the steps which are given in the documents which need to be followed at the national level for preventing crime in the society:

• A national action plan to prevent the Crime should be created, implemented and monitored • To enhance the current capacity for collecting the data on crime and criminals as the variety of the Crime is increasing day by day and the law enforcing and crime preventing organizations are not able to keep pace with it • Promoting the primary crime prevention program by the Government which should also encourage the non-government organizations (NGOs) to come forward and support the Crime Prevention activities

• The information obtained from one source on Crime prevention must be exchanged and increased with collaboration amongst the various parties involved in preventing the crime Crime prevention factors necessitating the crime prevention program There are many factors at work that keep community representatives from attending police- community meetings, and that keep residents from reporting crime and working with police to both prevent and combat crime. A Community Oriented Policing Services highlights some of the factors that have led to a “stop snitching” movement.

There are various reasons that make people reluctant to report crime or take a stand against it. These factors are experienced when people live in fear of retaliation, mistrust between residents and police, and the ineffectiveness of the judicial system. In order to prevent such a scenario, the most unique approach is the one taken by the Detroit Police Department which has put up its webpage on the social media sites like face book and my space that are aimed at reaching more young people.

Decreased community involvement in the fight against crime will exacerbate crime trends in years to come. Everyone must act now continually to create avenues to reach all residents in the fight to protect their communities. The Police department believes that relationships, communications, and involvement are all keys to successful police-community relations which would result in producing safer communities. Elements of the crime prevention program

The discussion on the crime prevention program begins with a description on routine crime theories which were originally conceived to describe the motivation behind execution of a crime. The theories are propounded fundamentally by analyzing the criminal activities which are taking place in the society as well as the various participants in the criminal activity. The situation, offender and the victim are analyzed to identify the various mechanisms operating during the crime execution. Theories of crime

Many of the criminological research have focused on motivating and characterizing the offenders. The following is the explanation for the alternative approach. Unlike many criminological inquires, it is important to examine that whether there is any reason of individuals or groups to be criminally inclined or they are criminally inclined by their nature as given and examined by the organization. Key concepts. There are three elements which must be covered whenever there is a direct contact with predatory crime that occurs at a point of time and a particular place:

• Motivate the offender by criminal inclinations • Suitable target • Absence of capable guardians is one of the reasons of violation Rational choice. For theory of rational choice the starting point is to assume that offenders seek to benefit themselves by the criminal behavior which involves by making the decisions and choices regarding the prevention program. However on the occasion of the process relating to crime this gets limited by the time and ability of the offender and the availability of relevant information on the subject of the program.

Situational Crime prevention. Situational crime prevention is described as the opportunity-reducing measures which have been taken and are directed in the form of crime are highly specific, which involves the managing area, designing or manipulating the immediate portion of area in a systematic and better way as possible, and to make crime for the criminals more difficult and risky, or less rewarding so that these criminals will not be able to perform these criminal activities.

Traditional Control Theory. In this routine activity theory, Felson has given a two step version of control theory. First stage is that the society establishes social bonds, and attaches a handle to each individual or a group. In the second stage, anybody with sufficient knowledge of the offender will be able to grasp the handle and to the control crime problem over the individual or the whole society. Self Control. Self Control theory is somewhat similar to the routine activity theory.

As the self control theory was established as early in life but Felson argues that many people need gentle, and in certain situations reprimands, to prevent them from breaking social rules. Informal social bonds keep a desired in check in the program. Responsibility Levels for Crime Discouragement. Felson in his earlier work has constructed a theory of guardian responsibility for crime discouragement. An intimate form of responsibility is the personal responsibility that is assumed by the owners of the businesses.

Assigning the responsibility which is granted to employees to check the specific crime discouragement tasks. Other responsibility is taken by any bystander to check the crime discouragement task if the employers who are appointed for it are not able to perform the work. Statistical support of the success of the program in affecting crime. Violence creating and the property crime rates are researched by the nations’ school during 2005-2007. Such crimes per 1,000 student’s age 12 years or older were statistically unchanged from 2004 rate of 55 victimization per 1,000 students.

It has been seen that how crime and violence affect children day by day, and it has been seen that how a community can be helped with after school programs that include the kids and the parents of the society. Because of the organization’s programs, many students at junior high school were at risk are now performing terrific in high school. Including this there is volunteering free time back into the program which help other students and families which are in need.

Office of Justice Programs provides federal leadership was developing the capacity in the nation prevent and control crime in the society to live a safe and happy life. Programs like Children of the City include children and their parents to address their current crises, including education and empowering them to break destructive sites and negative impact which have grown up with the people. Their main goal is to help child learning and to take responsibility of bringing the last change among themselves, and have to change the environment of their community to a better place to live.

Effectiveness of the crime prevention program In order to learn about the policies that can reduce the crime in the communities, there must be a good focus on the strong programming and strong scientific method which help the society. Under this context these strong programming which would address the various kinds of risk factors, while other strong scientific methods would be seen as isolated and the separate effects of different program relating to crime elements which are analyzed through the programs.

Crime Prevention through Environmental design (CPTED) evaluations are obtained through a comprehensive search mechanism. The technique involves measuring the quantifiable increments or decrements in the pre-intervention and the post- intervention of the events. The studies conducted in this area were classified into programs which were implementing many components, a single component, with and without any legal intervention.

It was found that the reductions in the crime related to robbery were larger for interventions consisting of cash control, basic design, and training components. There was no relation identified between robbery decreases with the follow up period which was the number of program components included. By studying and examining nonfatal injuries that were found in a median pre and post change of 61%; and those that were examining to the homicides found changes from 0% to 11% and can be increase to more.

The broad nature of CPTED approach was allowed to its adaptation and to any setting, and results which indicate that it is an effective approach to reduce robbery and crime. Impacts of societal factors on the selected crime prevention program “Pathways to Prevention” is an influential publication which summarizes early intervention and development approaches to crime through literature review and an assessment of existing programs and services. Themes for prevention are outlined and recommendations for future initiatives made.

This publication is intended for policy makers, managers and practitioners involved in youth work. It details factor contributing to effective youth work programs, and outlines issues and barriers in crime prevention. It stresses the importance of balancing crime prevention and potential repression of minority groups. It also identifies three categories for auditing crime prevention measures as given below: • Action research theory • Philanthropy and Social Marketing • Youth crime prevention Technological Advancement of the program.

Due to the technological advancement in the crime prevention there are various measures which are taken to avoid criminal activities and the knowledge to the general public is also given to create the general awareness among the people. The generic instructions for the different crime types are as given below – • Robbery: Avoid carrying valuable items or large amount of money. Always think ahead. The best advice is to cooperate when confronted by a robber. If you resist, there is a greater chance that you may be hurt.

• Street Safety: Stay in well lighted, busy area. When you carry a purse, hold it close to your body. Carry only what you need in purse Avoid using shortcuts through dark alleys, fields. • Community Mobilization: It is the most visible problem of the community based crime prevention strategy. This term has varied widely, from creating the development of community organization with the mobilization of resources from outside the community which needs to help and solve local and social problems like crime and unemployment illiteracy.

Conclusion This paper developed a routine activities theory and examined the activeness for expressing the impact of civil remedies and the social impacts on crime discouragement in the economy. The theory that was reformulated and constructed by analyzing its original propositions and creating a perspective look in the social criminal problems and the results from previous empirical studies which reflected the changes in the total crime environment of the society.

Various definitions and activities which are done as part of Crime Prevention has been clarified like the effectiveness, impact of technological advancement through which crime is being prevented from happening, the success of the various research centers and the safety measures which are to be followed by the general public so that they can prevent themselves from the mishaps.

It is expected that a synergetic partnership between the community and police coupled with the advances in the technology would definitely go in a long way to prevent the minor or major crimes in the society. References ___ Gilling, Daniel, Crime prevention: theory, policy, and politics (1997), Routledge. ___ Branch, Carolinas and Associated General Contractors of America, Crime Prevention: A Suggested Program for the Prevention of Theft and Vandalism in Construction (2001), Carolinas Branch AGC

___ Woods, Arthur, Crime Prevention (2008), BiblioBazaar, LLC ___ National Crime Prevention Council (NCPC) (2009), [Internet], Available at: < http://www. ncpc. org/>, Accessed on: 26 Jun 09 ___ United Nations Office on Drug and Crime, The Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (2009), [Internet], Available at: <http://www. unodc. org/unodc/en/commissions/CCPCJ/index. html>, Accessed on: 26 Jun 09 ___ Homepage, International CPTED association (2009), [Internet], Available at: <http://www. cpted. net/>, Accessed on: 26 Jun 09