It is therefore analyzed that crime rate emerged because of the changes in the number of criminals, the number of the victims involved in the crime, the formal and informal controls that are implemented by official agencies as well as the judgment of the public. Moreover, crime rates are impossible to explain if the relationship between the four elements of the crime square is not considered. Example of defining a crime rate is seen on the relationship between the social control and action of the criminal in the dyad between the victim and the offender.
If the reaction of to the crime is analyzed through time, it will be prove that crime is being committed because of the product of the offender behavior and the reaction of the victim to the crime. Crime is therefore varies with the explanation of the definer. Simply put, crime is crime if the definer is being able to consider the crime as a crime. Crime is therefore considered as not having a fixed objective; it will depend on the relationship between the four elements of the square of crime (Lea, 1992). Another example that pertains to the generation of crime rate is seen in a crime of rape and sexual assault.
The police and the official agencies way of responding to the to crime will greatly affect the response of the victim to the crime and the ‘primary victimization’ of the victim could even add up to the burden of the victim and ‘secondary victimization’ will be occurring. This happens because of the further stigmatization of the victim by the police, official agencies and courts. Crime rates are affected when the victim is able to willingly or unwillingly report the incident to the police (Young, 1991:153).
To further explain the framework of the square of crime and the relationship between the elements of the framework, it should be noted that action-reaction of the elements must be considered. The approach which the framework of the square of crime could be understood more if both the sides of the elements are being investigated responding to the action reaction concept. For example, in a crime, the society and the state does not simply react to the crime but also play a role in the different preventive measures for the definition of the crime (Young, 1987:337).
In relation to the action reaction concept, let us now examine the action and reaction of the state and society to the occurrence of different crimes. The emergence of the various crimes committed by the offenders in the society is probably the most essential action of the society and the state. The criminal law is considered to be an important factor to provide the different types of social actions through the legalization of the different official agencies to conduct several crime processes to solve the increasing crime rates in the society.
These official agencies probably will establish its relationship against the other elements of the square of crime to be able to provide legitimate and unbiased investigation to the crime. The criminal justice system nowadays deals greatly with the relationship of the individual agents rather than considering the society as a whole. The process of crime solution in the present criminal justice system procedure is in fact experiencing several problems which involve things such as the evidence presentation and the process of criminal trials.
These scenarios are the things which characterize the face of the criminal justice system nowadays. Conclusion After all the discussions that had been made presented above, the answer to the question of “how far are the ideas of the left realism useful in helping us to make sense of the crime and crime control? ” simply relies to the understanding of the current criminal justice system to the points that had been raised by the realists. First, left realism perceive crime as a real problem.
For them, the fear of the public which regards to the increasing growth of crime rates is just being rational and justifiable. Surveys done locally also proves that majority of the people in the society is able to view crime as a major problem as to contradict other people who view crime as just a minor problem of the society and as termed as “petty theft”. Because of this varied views about crime and criminal rates from the society, the left realist attempts to bring the victim to the central stage of the criminological studies.
Several surveys had also provided support to the claim of the left realists that police are losing the fight against crime control. The police is not already capable of doing their responsibility of policing and solving crimes especially in the inner cities of the State. Better and effective way of policing is crucial way to reduce crimes. This is because left realists had been viewing the structured inequality and perceptions of injustice as the fundamental cause of the criminal activities.