Describe the evolution of crime analysis in law enforcement and what role it plays in agencies today. Crime analysis refers to the analysis of information concerning crimes, which includes voluminous amount of information such as crime patterns, suspect correlation, profiles of suspects, and other pertinent information leading to the identity of the subject. It is then broken down into subjects of criminal analysis that differ in purpose, scope, data, and analysis techniques.
The evolution of crime analysis is the shift of methods of analyzing crime data and other records from the traditional to the use of computer in recording, keeping and analyzing data, and pertinent crime documents. This also includes computerized mapping of the whole area in order to locate and easily track down locations. The evolution of crime analysis in law enforcement is a milestone towards a speedy response to crime victimization as crime data and other pertinent crime records that took weeks and even months sometimes to analyze; crime analysis can now be done in a matter of hours (Evolution of C.
A. par. 1). In the traditional methods, crime mappings are tedious as it is done using pins as markers to identify particular crime locations. This is not easy as often, pins are falling off. Besides, pins had been removed each week, which means starting all over again every time. The computerization of police records enable the authorities to record crimes, and other important data, including mapping the whole area, and analyzing crimes easily and speedy. Thoroughly address the differences between a tactical, administrative, and strategic analyst, providing examples.
The differences between Tactical, Administrative, and Strategic analysts centered on the nature of their assigned task and responsibilities although they are closely working with each other. Deborah Osborne and Susan Wernicke (2003) stated that tactical Crime analyst focused about “analyzing data to develop information on the where, when, and how of crimes in order to assist officers and investigators in identifying and understanding specific and immediate crime problems” (Osborne & Wernicke p. 5).
The goal is to come up with a quick response to a crime problem. The administrative analyst on the other hand is concerned with providing summary data, statistics, and general information to police managers. Osborne and Wernicke pointed out that it is the task of the administrative crime analyst to provide “descriptive information about crime to department administrators, command staff, and officers, as well as to other city government personnel and the public” (Osborne & Wernicke p. 8).
In this case, administrative analysts are responsible for analyzing administrative crimes involving monitoring and compiling statistics. While both the tactical and the administrative crime analyst deals with the current crime problem, strategic analyst is concern about long- range problems and planning for long-term projects (Osborne & Wernicke, p. 7). The strategic analyst is concern on examining increases and decreases of crime on a long-term basis or simply known as the crime trend.
Like the first two, the strategic crime analyst provides information to crime prevention officers, community-oriented policing officers, planning and research, and so forth. They then identify overall increase of crimes in particular area and develop strategic plan to address the over all crime in the area (Osborne & Wernicke p. 7). Give a detailed explanation of the importance of modus operandi and criminal behavior in crime analysis.
The importance of modus operandi and criminal behavior in crime analysis is that they provide link as to the identity of the perpetrator of the crime. Richard N. Kocsis (2007) stated that studies were able to link “crime scene behaviors to offenders’ characteristics such as personality, criminal motivation, physical characteristics, routine activities, and criminal antecedents” (Kocsis p. 93). Modus operandi is a principle that a criminal is likely to use the same technique repeatedly and that this technique leaves a mark of identification in a particular crime.
An example to this is the offenders’ habitual use of objects in doing his crime, such as a burglar who usually used a pipe wrench on the front doorknob to gain entry. The importance of Modus operandi is that it provides a clue as to the identity of the offender. However, according to Stuart H. James and Jon Nordby (2005), the analytical use of the modus operandi has changed in the late 80s as apparently, offenders “would change slightly from crime to crime” (James & Nordby, p.
607). Citing the example of the burglar, James and Nordby stated that upon discovering that the front door was unlocked, the burglar will enter without using the pipe wrench which at this point, changes to “fit the circumstances” (p. 607). Nevertheless, modus operandi and criminal behavior continuous to be one of the leads those investigators are following in investigating particular crimes.
Though James and Nordby stated that criminals tend to change their style when the opportunity presents itself, yet they did not deny that criminals still follow such kind of behavior. It is still an important clue in the analysis of a particular crime. Reference List Evolution of Crime Analysis http://www. gainesvillepd. org/evolution_of_crime_analysis. htm James, S. & Nordby, J. (2005) Forensic Science. USA: CRC Press Kocsis, R. (2007) Criminal Profiling. USA Humana Press Osborne, D. & Wernicke, S. (2003) Introduction to Crime Analysis. USA: Haworth Press.