Researchers suggest that Correctional Officers perceive some degree of uncertainty and danger within the prison system (Guenther, 1978), as well as hold negative views of inmates (Chang & Zastrow, 1986). Consequently, Owen’s (1988) research suggest that violence responses occurs within complex interactions fueled by multiple motives and by situational definitions brought to these interactions. Correctional Officers as Victim
Correctional Officers, as a function of job requirements, must have day-to-day interaction with inmates that quickly become volatile situation (Fox et al. , 1994). Oftentimes, hostile and violence interactions between Correctional Officers and inmates are perpetuated by several underlying conditions, such as strained inmate-to-inmate and inmate-to-staff interaction, disciplinary actions, limitation on personal space, staff moral, and the overall atmosphere of distrust (Fox et al.
, 1994 & Light, 1990). Approximately the victim Correctional Officers have 10 years experiences in the correctional system (Gross, 2008). These victims usually did not follow proper procedures and policy within the prison system. Victims Correctional Officers also are confident that they have skills to read the mind of the people around them and they are confident that they can control situations, yet they failed to see the dangers coming. Violence and Victimization in the Prison System
Violence within correctional system has always been a component of the inherent nature of the prison system. Presenting itself as a triple-edged sword, Gibbs (1981) contends that the “violence does not emerge full-blown but it is the product of three interacting sets of variable; 1) the aggressor (personality, needs, concern, perceptions, etc. ); 2) the victim (personality, needs, concern, perceptions, etc. ); and, 3) the situation (the human and physical environment in which the incident takes place)”. When these variable collide, the forthcoming violence occurs.