Convention on Cybercrime and The Council of Europe (CoE)

Today, with the development of modern technology in the 21st century. The computer has become a key role in the interaction between people and institutions and the world at all levels. The use of this technology has been doubled through the use of the Internet. It has become a universal communication tool in the lives of people. It facilitates all things and saves time, with the multiple uses of technology and various systems, but this use face lot of threat One of these threats is cybercrime, it become a major threat to this technology and its uses.

According to the website ‘Technopidia.com’, Cybercrime is defined as a crime in which the use of the computer in an illegal way or use it to commit cybercrime and hate crimes. It is used by computer hackers to access personal information, commercial data, or for extortion purposes. Criminals can also use computers to connect and store documents or data. Criminals who carry out these illegal activities are often referred to as infiltrators.in addition, John Mason found through the statistics he made last year, that cyber-attacks are growing every day and influencing much businesses, and all billionaires and businessmen claim that cyber threats are the bigger threat facing the world more than the threats from nuclear weapons.

In 2001 The Council of Europe (CoE), adopted its Convention on Cybercrime. Researchgate.com explains how cybercrimes works, and categories it to three forms. the first is phishing, this category trick people, and disclosing personal information. It does not require direct contact between the intruders and the victims but relies on sending mass messages to thousands of victims and increasing access to personal information by creating a simulated website on the Internet, then sends a fake e-mail convincingly, attracting users to this replicator site, and then redirecting users to the real site.

The second category is Spam, it’s the distribution of mass e-mails that promote services, investment plans or products, which may later become fraudulent. The purpose of this process is to deceive customers into believing that they will receive an original product or service at a reduced price. After disclosing their security information, the clients will never hear from spammers. Today, spammers are still looking for better ways to reach more users using social engineering and technological advances.

The third category is hacking this category is the most active forms of cybercrime. It also threatens society in a large way. It can be defined as unauthorized access and the use of other’s computer systems. Hacking start with collecting information and surveys by using social engineering, then scanning, and attacking the target. This type of organized threat is complicated by the fact that the ability to access, control and destroy electronic and security systems, and it’s growing at a high rate.

Most cybercrimes are about stealing online banking, identity theft, and extortion crimes. There is also a wide range of illegal crimes activities such as crimes through the internet like hate crimes and cyber terrorism.’Technopidia.com’ classify this crime to two types. The first type targets computer network or hardware attacks, virus attacks and denial of service (DOS) attacks. The second type is used by the computer network to carry out with other criminal activities like steal banks, steal identities, or scams.

We can classify cybercrimes to different classes the first one is financial fraud is one of the highest cybercrimes. It falsifies facts and allows others to make unauthorized changes to gain benefit. This requires a little technical experience, it’s a common theft committed by employees who change data before entering or entering wrong data, or by receiving instructions from institutions to hide transactions which is hard to detect. financial fraud as well use computers to steal identity and credit card, which result in loss of money information or private information. The second class is Cyber Terrorism, this kind of cybercrime is committed by groups of people who commit crimes against people or countries, or force governments to force them to carry out their goals. It is also based on raising fear among people, showing force and gathering information to destroy people’s lives.

Online extortion is an example of cybercrime. This happens when a site, e-mail, or system is repeatedly threatened with denial of service or other attacks by hackers. These sites allow them to request money for deleting information, providing protection to a particular person, or sharing sensitive information. or impeding their ability to work and demanding payments to restore their services. Another example of cybercrime is attacks computer. This type of crime revolves around fraud and intrusion through the Internet. The individual is the target. here the Human weaknesses are exploited. These include stealing identity, sharing abusive content, exposing the owner to harassment, threats, or sexual harassment.

This type of cybercrime is characterized by criminals who are experts and have a great knowledge of the Internet. These crimes are relatively new. They are primarily targeted computers, devices, and networks. for example, computer viruses, and denial of service attacks and Malware.