1. Choose any one reason from the list and explain how it contributed to the growth of Imperialism. The economic needs of European countries contributed to the growth of Imperialism in the second half of the 19th Century. The power of Industrialization increased the need for raw materials (rubber, diamonds, palm oil… etc) and new markets to sell manufactured goods. Foreign territories were viewed as markets where merchandise produced in Europe could be sold. In addition, foreign countries offered vital items, which were not accessible in Europe.
Thus, the growth of Imperialism in the second half of the 19th century helped Europe maintain an industrialized economy. A Russian communist, Lenin, assumed that the rapid growth of Imperialism was wholly caused by the economic needs of a capitalist society. A growing capitalism population required foreign lands for financial savings and to avoid its collapse. Overall, imperial expansion in Lenin's eyes was not a strategy, but inevitability. Without plentiful raw materials and new markets from increased Imperialism capitalism would have failed, resulting in a workers' revolution.
In general, based from the above facts, the economic reasons of Europe's capitalist community contributed to the growth of Imperialism. China in the second-half of the 19th Century further verified Lenin's ideas, in regards to economic factors being the sole cause for the growth of Imperialism. The key cause of 'The MaCartney Mission' was to negotiate a commercial treaty with China to extend trade throughout the nation. In October, Lord Macartney submitted specific requests to construct a warehouse in Peking for traders selling manufactured goods. He also asked for additional trading ports in Ningpo and Tientsin.
Moreover, the Opium Wars caused China to sign a series of agreements with Britain, under the threat of force. Incorporated in the treaties was the abolishment of the Canton System; hence China was required to trade with the Europeans on an equal basis. Overall, the European requests all had subtle links to trade. The 'China occurrences' verified Europe's need for raw materials and new markets in the second half of the 19th Century. These needs forced them to widen their empire. India was recognized as a 'jewel in the crown of England' primarily because India helped Britain maintain an industrialized economy.
India provided a cheap source of labour following the abolition of slavery. For example, in 1858-1859 53,000 Indians were sent overseas as indentured labour. Britain's interest in India rapidly increased after the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial revolution created a demand for raw materials and new markets. Raw materials like rubber from Congo, diamonds from South Africa, cotton from India and Persian oil were exceedingly valuable to European businessmen. Without abundant raw materials, Europe's industrialized economy would almost certainly weaken, sooner or later.
These valuable 'necessities' contributed to the growth of Imperialism in India and other resourceful countries. In conclusion, the economic requirements of European countries helped catalyze imperial expansion in the second half of the 19th Century. The stable supply of raw materials and new markets, through increased overseas expansion in the second half of the 19th century, helped sustain capitalism and avoid a workers' revolution. Moreover, Europe's Industrialization caused a higher demand for abundant raw materials, which were not available in their home country.
They also required new markets to sell their industrialized goods. 2. Choose one area, in which there was imperialist expansion (i. e. China, India, Africa) and explain why the above reasons may have been important for causing imperial expansion in this area. There were numerous interlinked reasons for imperial expansion in China. The power supplied by The Industrial Revolution and the Western idea of 'progress through change' were Britain's motives for colonizing China. Moreover, Britain's sensations of culture superiority and her economic necessities were other reasons for overseas expansion in this area.
Nationalism, or commonly referred to as 'pride in one's country', is deemed a predominant cause for imperialism in China. The British were proud of their country's achievements, which usually included taking over foreign territories. Therefore, influence and control over China heightened patriotism and loyalty amongst Britain's local population. In addition, it lessened the prospect of a civil uprising or revolution in Britain itself. As a result of Britain's growing patriotism, they appeared to regard themselves as the 'superior race' and viewed China's population as being inferior to their own.
For example, signs outside restaurants were quoted 'No dogs, no Chinese people'. In consequence, Britain deemed that it was their obligation, as a dominant nation, to bring sensibility, western culture and industrialization to a 'barbaric', uncivilized country, like China. This concept is universally recognized as 'White Man's Burden' and was vital in the causation for imperial expansion in China Examples of Western influences are apparent by the influx of Christian missionaries, and the construction of Christian churches and railways in China, in order to promote their ethnicity.
Initially, China refused to implement western ideas and technology because they too felt superior. They saw themselves as the 'Middle Kingdom' and remained a 'closed' city for centuries before. Hence, the pace of Western modernization was slow. After the opium wars, China recognized that the West were military unconquerable and that to defeat them, China had to strengthen itself. This transition from major resistance to partial opposition helped maintain commerce, in the West. However, this only occurred after both Opium Wars took place, and China faced huge indemnities (unequal treaties).