One aspect of the transformation is featured by urban ideologies, produced by the intersection of many points of modernity. Urban society is not accutely opposed to the rural world, and that the predominance of secondary relations over the primary and of heterogeneity over homogeneity is not only because of the concentration of population in the cities. Seeing that cultural transformation created by the latest technologies and by the changes in symbolic production and circulation were not the only responsibility of the communications media prompted a search for more comprehensive approach.
As the new processes were associated with urban growth, it was brought into thinking that the city could become the unity that might give coherence and consistent analytical studies. In the four decades between 1880 and 1920, a lot of the social institutions and figures of everyday life with which we are now so familiar, expected their present forms. Their growth was adherently tied up with the development of modern media.
The occurrence of the wireless telegraphy in 1895, and of automatic switchboards in telephone exchanges in 1892, accorded bigger volumes of information and conversation to be transmitted instantly, over growingly greater distances. In magazines and newspapers, the ability to reproduce photographs for the first time, changed the popular press. This new complex of contemporary communications media played a main role in building up the modern social order. They accorded both the large business enterprises and government which were coming out in the political arena, to manage their rapidly expanding activities more effectively.
Contemporary business worked with every more complex series of supply, production, and distribution. Modern communications were basic to the ways that government and business corporations guarded public support. These things were part of a more advanced debate about the state of public culture. Professionals manufactured more and more of the language and imagery through which people now adapted. These people were dedicated mainly to making profit. Questions regarding the main tendencies of interceded public culture led easily on to issues about their effect on customary people.
How did popular media influence the behavior and beliefs of individual? How they change everyday patterns of activity and sociability? Prevailing understandings of media studies comprise media production, mass communication, journalism, political economy, interpersonal communication. Separate strands are labeled within media studies. They are named as Audience studies, Producer Studies, Television Studies and Radio Studies. Film studies is always identified as a separate discipline, although television and video games studies grew out of it.
It has been made clear by the application of basic critical theories namely psychoanalysis, feminism and Marxism. Contemporary media studies embrace the analysis of new media, which highlighted on the internet, video games, mobile devices, interactive television, and other types of mass media which was developed from the 1990s. Since these new technologies make instant communication worldwide (e. g. chat rooms and instant messaging, online video games, video conferencing), interpersonal communication is an important aspect in new media studies. One other factor that influences contemporary media studies is globalization.
The debate of globalization as a historical event or as a social construction angers Tom McPhail's theory of electronic colonialism has received recognition internationally. The difference between new media and the old one is obscure because in order to come with the new media the old have been recreated, re-engineered, revised, and re-mediated. The new media keeps the old media going. The technology and patterns of usage must be understood within the context of practices of society and identity formation.
- Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, “Mass Media” 20 Dec. 2006 http://www.wmin.ac.uk/sshl/pdf/CSD0607Karppinnen.pdf