Construction Blocks – Abstract

Construction block technology offers a speedier, cost effective, environmentally sound alternative to conventional walling materials. It is based on the principle of densification of a lean concrete mix to make a regular shaped, uniform, high performance masonry unit. This technology can be easily adapted to suit special needs of users by modifying design parameters such as mix proportion, water/cement ratio and type of production system. It is an effective means of utilizing waste materials local resources; as well as it increases scope for decentralized local production.

Topics to be covered:1. Various inventions by BMTPC:  Rubble Filler Concrete Block  Precast Concrete Stone Masonry Blocks  Hollow and solid lightweight concrete blocks/ Cinder blocks  Fal – G sand blocks  Fly Ash Bricks etc. 2. Interlocking Hollow Core Blocks by Anangpur Building Centre

3. Various inventions by CBRI:  Compressed stabilized earth blocks  Stabilized Adobe blocks  LATO blocks  Clay red mud burnt bricks/ tiles 4. Eco block by Dave Jenkins Construction, USA 5. Monolithic wall system (POROTHERM/KLIMABLOC) 6. Haener Block – Mortarless Interlocking System 7. Aircrete Blocks – light weight construction blocks by H + H Celcon 8. Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Blocks (AAC) 9. Glasscrete blocks

DIVISHA JINDAL

BEM/471

SPA, NEW DELHI

New Building Materials & Technologies 201010. Verot Oaks Building Blocks(VOBB)– dry stack mortar less concrete blocks by Newell’s Design, USA 11. Green bricks made from crushed tiles and old mortar 12. Bamboo/timber mat based walls (Ekra walling) The above study shall include the description of different equipments and procedures required for construction, raw materials and resources, applications, limitations and specifications for each type of technology.

The seminar shall also include a brief study of the following IS codes:     IS: 2180 – 1988 : Specification for heavy duty burnt clay building bricks IS: 2185(Part I) – 1979 : Specification for concrete masonry units – Hollow & Solid Concrete IS: 2185(Part II) – 1983 : Specification for concrete masonry units – Hollow & Solid Lightweight IS: 2185(Part III) – 1984 : Specification for concrete masonry units – AAC blocks

Finally, a comparative chart showing cost difference among the various technologies and also as compared to conventional brick walling system, shall be done; followed by case studies.

Construction Blocks – as alternative walling elements AN ENVIRONMENT CONSCIOUS PRODUCT AND SUSTAINABLE BUILDING TECHNOLOGY Issues & Basis:

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Shelter is a basic human need affecting the largest number of people worldwide. The Building Industry is the largest consumer of resources whether it is materials, capital or energy. It causes the largest amount of environmental degradation as a result of quarrying, mining process, depletion of natural resources. It is also one of the largest progenitors of waste output, for example, construction debris, etc.

Building materials produced in industrial processes are responsible for pollution and global warming. Monopolized Industrial processes increase cost of building products resulting in a rubberstamping effect of products and negating a response to locally available materials and needs. The building industry is second only to agriculture in providing employment for the maximum number of people.

Walling materials constitute approximately 30% of construction and the largest mass of a building.

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They account for the maximum capital resource in the structure. They have the largest surface area and account for maximum recurring maintenance costs. Failure of the walls is the single largest factor responsible for the collapse of structures in case of calamities such as earthquakes. Maximum thermal exchange in a building takes place through walls.

DIVISHA JINDAL

BEM/471

SPA, NEW DELHI

New Building Materials & Technologies 2010Unfortunately, apart from high technology surfacing materials that have emerged over the years, the basic performance criterion required of a walling material remains unexamined. The entire development has revolved around stronger walls to give more resilient surfaces whereas logically the decisions should have been based around resilient surfaces with lean back up materials for the body of the wall. The strength requirement of a walling material rated at 150 Kgs/sq cm in itself is a fallacy.

The soil bearing capacity is usually 2 to 3 Kg/sq cm and the load on a wall is less than 1 Kg/sq cm per floor. The high compressive strength of a walling block is the direct consequence of its surface requirements. The ideal block would therefore require a resilient non-erodible surface with a lean backup body material. Another important criterion should be the feasibility of manufacture at the site, with minimal capital. Source: www.anangpur.org The variety of construction blocks is extensive, from dense through to lightweight, offering a range of load bearing strength and sound & thermal insulation properties. Construction blocks are defined as solid , hollow orcellular as shown.

Construction blocks are manufactured to various workface dimensions in an extensive range of thickness, offering a wide choice of load bearing capacity and levels of insulation. The standard workface size, which coordinates to three courses of metric brickwork allowing for 10mm mortar joints, is 440*215 mm. There are other sizes which are to be considered for aesthetic and constructional reasons. Another category consists of interlocking hollow core blocks which apart from having all characteristics of the above varieties, have an interlocking structure.

Thus, they join easily by using cement slurry only and no mortar is needed for making walls with these. Also, these possess an integrated permanent surface finish, thus, reducing the maintenance costs.

DIVISHA JINDAL

BEM/471

SPA, NEW DELHI