I would like to thank my entire group members and Professor Donaldson whose comments and suggestions had been very helpful to improve the quality of this final paper. I have tried for the best of my ability to incorporate in this final version, all their great ideas about the format and the content of the documents. Professor Donaldson suggested “I am going to suggest that you do a little reorganizing. First of all, you should get rid of all of the headings. (Yes, all of them.)
Then you should move the biography blurbs to the beginning of each discussion of each respective author. ” This idea abstracts Joseph’s and Kandice’s. Following these directions, I have removed all the headings, and the biography blurbs. I also have quoted from the required textbook, and mentioned related page numbers in parentheses. Kandice wanted “I would organize the paper in a different way and also try and tie the writers and speakers background more into their writings”. Copy and Past were the best tools to satisfy that other nice suggestion.
Once again thank you; Malcolm X’s leadership style and his viewpoint about how the Civil Right Movement should be implemented was very similar to David Walker’s, but greatly conflicted with Booker T Washington whose ideas appealed to a completely different audience. The Civil Right Movement is the Africans- Americans movement that dominated the debates in the United Stated political sphere during the period of (1955-1968). The movement was about the fight against inequality, Americans struggles for social justice, and the racial discriminations.
In order to reach their objectives, Africans Americans leaders had displayed many different ideas about how to conduct the movement. Some believed that the movement should be implemented without violence; some thought that the economic freedom was the first to be reached, while others believed that the freedom could not be achieved without confrontation. If the ideas of those bright leaders were saluted by the majority of the Americans people today, it is however noticeable that some of them are still been seen as controversial figures.
David Walker was born in Wilmington, North Carolina 1796. His father was a slave man and his mother a free black, so was David Walker because of the existing laws that defined the status of the child based on the mother’s. As many of his fellow blacks, a freeman status could not prevent anyone from being an unfortunate witness of the human cruelties. In 1820 he was part of the associate back activists to denounce slavery and discrimination; he also took part of the Freedom’s Journal in New York City, and many others forms of social justice fight. In 1830 David was found dead in his home.
David Walker had accomplished many works for the Civil Right movement in America to make the United States a better country for all Americans. Among those works, one of the written that had brought so much attention to the public is walker’s Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World. In this document, Walker made the true to be heard as it was based on his observation in the United States and around the world. He spoke not only to his brethren, but the white Christian Americans. He reminded the Christians about their values, the history of the Egyptians, and Romans Slaveries.
He also reminded them about the history of those slaveries and how they had been destroyed because of their God anger based on the inhuman treatment they used to impose to the slaves whom supposed to be treated with the same human dignity they would want for their families. “God made man to serve Him alone, and that man should have no other Lord or Lords but Himself— that God Almighty is the sole proprietor or master for the Whole human family, and will not on any consideration admit a colleague”. (P. 230) His appeal was also for the black asking their sense of capability of rising up and demands what is their civil right: ” Oh!
my coloured brethren, all over the world, when shall we arise from this death-like apathy? –And be men!! ” “Are we MEN!! -I ask you, O my brethren! are we MEN? Did our Creator make us to be slaves to dust and ashes like ourselves? Are they not dying worms as well as we? Have they not to make their appearance before the tribunal of Heaven, to answer for the deeds done in the body, as well as we? Have we any other Master but Jesus Christ alone? Is he not their Master as well as ours? -What right then, have we to obey and call any other Master, but Himself?
How we could be so submissive to a gang of men, whom we cannot tell whether they are as good as ourselves or not, I never could conceive. However, this is shut up with the Lord, and we cannot precisely tell-but I declare, we judge men by their works” (P. 237). Clearly, Walker’s strategy encourages the revolt and the civil disorder. Unlike David Walker, Booker Taliaferro Washington was born slave in 1856, from a slave mother and a white father. As many young slaves, he had been exposed very soon to the routines; his early duty was to carry the books of James Burroughs’s daughters at Franklin County School.
After the Emancipation Proclamation was read in April 1865, his family went to his stepfather’s house in Malden, West Virginia. Booker started working at a salt mine and going to school. Few years later, booker got a houseboy position with a wealthy towns-woman, a person who promoted his learning. When he was 16, he used to travel back to Virginia to the new school for black students. He studied at Hampton Institute while working. His admission to Hampton changed his life; he was instructor. In 1881 he founded Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. Booker was nationally recognized as the back educator.
He was more focused on pushing for black’s economic well being and fighting against racisms. He died in 1915. Monday, 21-Aug-2006 In his famous and historical speech of compromise before a majority white audience in Atlanta on September 18th, 1895, Booker T Washington had laid out a strategy for the blacks’ economic freedom; Booker urged his fellow blacks Americans to be more focused in their own economic development “Cast down your bucket where you are—Cast it down in making friends in every manly way of the people of all races by whom we are surrounded.
Cast it down in agriculture, mechanics, in commerce, in domestic service, and in the professions”. (P. 595) He also spoke about the role the whites Americans would have to play to help them to achieve that goal. “Cast down your bucket among the eight millions of Negroes whose habits you know whose fidelity and love you have tested in days when to have proved treacherous meant the ruin of your firesides. Cast down your bucket among these people who have, without strikes and labour wars, tilled your fields, cleared your forests, builded your railroads and cities”(P.
595) The compromise had reminded the whites Americans to their role and responsibility tower the blacks Americans based on the choice they would have to make. A positive choice would be the whites’ willingness to promote black education and make them the most intellect and useful citizens; while the wrong choice would simply keep them doing the business as usual, denying the basic right of education to the blacks Americans, keeping them ignorant at the same exposed them as, the threats for the whites.
Booker’s strategy in this speech appealed to the blacks’ economics development in a peaceful environment with the whites Americans. Unlike the two first leaders, Malcolm Little was born free in Omaha, Nebraska on May 19th, 1925. His parents were both blacks Americans; his mother was a homemaker and his father was an outspoken Baptist minister also a strong supporter of Black Nationalism. In 1929 their home was burned, and his father’s body was found mutilated after two years. Years later, his mother Louise had the mental issues because of the situation the family went through.
Malcolm is graduated from junior high as the top of the class. He did not continue his studies because he was influenced by the negative advise that suggested that his goal of becoming a lawyer was not reachable for a nagger. He worked numerous jobs in Boston before traveling to New York; he was associated to many criminal activities. In 1946 Malcolm was arrested in Boston with burglary charges and sentenced for seven years in prison. Malcolm used his prison term for self studies and taking part in the organized debates.
He was influenced by Elijah Muhammad a leader of the Nation of Islam; before he left prison, Malcolm was a strong follower of the Nation of Islam. He changed his last name to “X” as a way to repeal to the slave name while expressing the backs’ identity issues. Unlike many of the Civil Right Leaders, Malcolm X is a complex transformational figure in American history. His accomplishments and his different life stories continue to generate heats debates among his supporters and opponents.
The transformation from a criminal Malcolm Little, the influential Black Muslim leaders Malcolm X, and his controversial position on the public issues. In April 1964, Malcolm X delivered a speech that defined his position about the direction of the Civil Right Movement. The speech is famously called The Ballot or the Bullet. In that speech, like David Booker, Malcolm spoke about the Negroes revolt; similarly both men were not afraid to die for the cause, and both believed in action. Both of them were ready to take any action against oppression.
The Southerners were ready to offer $1,000, against David Walker’s heart after his Appeal to Coloured Citizens of the Work. He was found died in his home; it is not clear what killed him. Malcolm X ended up by getting killed. Booker T Washington like Malcolm X was for the blacks’ economics development even though the methods were different. Booker would like it peacefully and inclusively in compromise with the white people. Malcolm X would like it exclusively in black communities even if they had to confront the white people whom he accused of the causes of the blacks’ struggles.
Malcolm X believe “ the Negroes who through their lives have been kicked about, treated like children—Negroes who never have met one white man who didn’t either take something from tem or do something to them. ” (P. 1871). David Walker, Booker T Washington, and Malcolm X were Africans Americans leaders whom had influenced Americans history through their work in the Civil Right movement. Their belief, theories, and actions in the process of the Civil Right Movement, Malcolm X and David Walker had the same philosophical views that made their voices more appealing to the same group of audience in majorly blacks.
Booker T Washington who had philosophical difference with his fellows X and Walker, believed in a peaceful resolution of the matter with a possible cohabitation of all Americans. As his fellow leaders David Walker and Booker T Washington, Malcolm X had a tremendous contribution to the American history, but because of his outspoken position to many issues of public interest, his enemies had portrayed him as a controversial figure, and did not want him to be recognized as a great American leader. He was someone who used to speak fearlessly from the heart about any kinds of issues.
The way he used to express his viewpoints was the same to his enemies as well as his to friends and his leaders whom introduced him to Muslim religion. As far as the controversy is concerned, it depends of who you are and on which side of the issues you on. The black people would see David and Malcolm as the voices of those without voices; their outspoken actions against the system were the direct translation of many frustrations among the black communities. Obviously, a white person would see them as dividers and would try hard to expose them as bad guys.
Booker T Washington would be seen as a centrist. David Walker and Malcolm X had the same stand point about how to conduct the Civil Right Movement. They both promoted the civil disorders, revolt, unity, and economic improvement between blacks in exclusion with the white Americans. Booker T Washington would prefer the black economic empowerment in compromise and friendship with the whites Americans. He wanted the black people to give up of some claim of the civil right, and the white people to help black to realize their economic development.
All of the three leaders, David Walker, Booker T Washington and Malcolm X agreed about black people’s education, their economic development, and unity among them. David Walker and Malcolm X believed that the confrontation, revolt and exclusion were the way to go without any compromise. They did not trust the whites Americans’ willingness to compromise. They believed that the freedom could not be negotiated, but could be earned by fighting for it. Booker T Washington did not agree with them. He believed that the revolt and exclusion were not the best answers, but the compromise and inclusion.
He believed that there was a possibility for both communities to dependently work together in the mutual respect. BIBLIOGRAPHY African American Odyssey, Web. Sun 25 April. 2010 Maureen S. Stocker. “Education Theory of Booker T. Washington” New Foundations, Gallery. 01 April 08 Louis R. Harlan, ed. , ” The Booker T. Washington Papers, Vol. 3″, (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1974), 583-587 Herbert Aptheker,” One Continual Cry” David Walker’s Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World” (1829-30), 1965.
Benjamin Quarles, “Black Abolitionists”, 1969. Donald M. Jacobs, ” David Walker: Boston Race Leader, 1825-1830,” Essex Institute Historical Collections 107 (Jan. 1971): 94-107. “David Walker” David (1785-1830), abolitionist, orator, and author < http://www. answers. com/topic/david-walker > David Walker (1785-1830) ” Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World” (1829), “Malcolm X” The Autobiography of Malcolm X Summary & Study Guide Wed 28 April 2010