All organizations need to adapt to changes in its operations. Such adaptation is a necessary response on the part of the company to the changing demands and goals that are the primary concerns of the organization. Thus, it is believed that such adaptation is a timeless challenge for all organizations (Piderit, 2000).
In recent years, this challenge had become increasingly imperative, considering the trend towards globalization, political shifts, and the opening of new markets for services and products. Most successful organizations learned that it is important that company changes get employee support and enthusiasm, as opposed to mere overcoming of employee resistance to change (Piderit, 2000).
One of the most common and important change utilized by organizations is the training of its employees. Training is known as an activity whereby an expert transfers certain knowledge and skills to the learners. Such activity is aimed at bringing an organization into a higher level of performance (McNamara, 2006).
Employee training is important for organizations because it addresses the corporation’s desire to utilize the increased efficiency by its employees which would necessarily generate financial gain, reduced employee turnover, and enhanced company image. Employee training also helps increase employee morale and motivation (McNamara, 2006).
A successful organization needs a good manager who possesses good leadership skills, who could maximize the organization’s output (Pascale, 1990). Different management techniques may be adopted by a manager, and the leadership style of a leader is largely influenced by the culture of the organization.
Different leadership styles differ based on the way that the leader gets the results he wants and the degree of participation he demands from his team. Thus, the autocratic leader is very dominant and requires only passive resistance from his members. On the other hand, the laissez-faire manager does not overly control his members, allowing them to work with little motivation and direction. Finally, the democratic leader maintains his control over his team, but seeks the latter’s input and participation in decision-making (Goodworth, 1988).
Decision-making in organizations can be made by following three different strategies. On strategy is called routine decision-making, whereby “the organization or group agrees upon the desired goal, and technologies exist to achieve the goal.” This strategy employs division of labor, specialization, and coordination.
The second strategy is creative decision-making, which has for its central element the lack of a specific method of dealing with the problem. Thus, this process requires spontaneous communication, full participation, and idea generation from members of the organization. Finally, the third strategy is negotiated decision-making, which requires that opposing groups and conflicting theories are reconciled in order to arrive at an integrative decision (Delbecq, 1967).
Aside from having a good leader and understanding the decision-making process, an organization needs to learn certain concepts vital to its success, such as planning, organizing, controlling, and leading. Planning involves the formulation of the long-term goals of the organization, together with concrete steps of reaching those goals. On the other hand, organizing involves the coordination of activities within the organization, including centralization and delegation of tasks among the members of the organization.
Finally, controlling refers to the process whereby a person or group influences, affects, or determines the action of other persons within the organization (Marcus & Cafagna, 1965). For example, managers influence the actions of their subordinates.
Delbecq, A. L. (1967). The Management of Decision-Making within the Firm: Three Strategies for Three Types of Decision-Making. The Academy of Management Journal 10(4), 329-339
Goodworth, C. (1988). The Secrets of Successful Leadership and People Management. Heinman Professional Publishing.
Marcus, P. M. & Cafagna, D. (1965). Control in Modern Organizations. Public Administration Review 25(2), 121-127.
McNamara, C. (2006). Employee Training and Development: Reasons and Benefits. Retrieved December 25, 2007, from http://www.managementhelp.org/trng_dev/basics/reasons.htm
Pascale, R. (1990). Managing on the Edge. Penguin Books.
Piderit, S. K. (2000). Rethinking Resistance and Recognizing Ambivalence: A Multidimensional View of Attitudes toward an Organizational Change. The Academy of Management Review 25(4), 783-794.