College papers

The vertical distance between the wave crest and the wave trough is the B) wave height 2 A tsunamis with a wavelength of 200 km is a deep water wave E) Never, tsunamis are shallow-water waves. 3 Tides that occur at the time of the first quarter moon and the last quarter moon are E) neap tides. 4 Water transported shoreward by waves in the surf zone is returned seaward by. E) rip currents. 5 Salt marshes and coastal swamps are important because they A) are nursery areas for fish and birds. B) are nesting and feeding areas for birds. C) act to filter out pollutants.. E) A, B, and C. 6 The open ocean always has gentle 1-2 m (�3-6 ft) waves, called swells, that are generated by A) the steady winds of the trade winds. B) large storms out at sea. 7 Diurnal tides have a high tide A) once a day. 8 Feature(s) characteristic of an emergent coast: A) uplifted low-tide terraces. 9 What controls the composition of beach sand? A) The composition of what is being eroded and carried to the beach. 10 Coastal wetlands are A) coastal areas between high and low tide. D) coastal areas that are underwater part of the year with either fresh water or salt water. 11 The diameter of the orbit of a deep-water wave at the surface is equal to the A) wave height. 12 To navigate swift tidal currents safely, small boats need to wait for A) slack water (or slack tide). 13 An emergent coast can be caused by A) falling sea level. B) tectonic uplift of coasts. C) decreasing weight on coastal crust by melting large glaciers. D) all of these 14 Which of the following are possible sources of sand for a coastal circulation cell? A) eroding sea cliffs B) river deltas D) A and B 15 Which of the following sources of pollution are considered a point source for pollution? A) A leaky city sewage pipe. B) Untreated waste from a factory. D) A and B. 16 Which of the following statements about waves is correct? . B) A wave is energy moving through water. 17 A minus tide is a tide that B) is lower than the average low tide. 18 A long, narrow island made of sand deposited parallel to the shore is a A) barrier island. 19 In an area of north-to-south longshore drift, building a groin leads to ________ on the north side and __________ on the south side of the groin. B) deposition, erosion 20 Dead zones with no oxygen in Chesapeake Bay are caused by C) excessive nutrients leading to algal blooms that later decay. 21 When you go to the beach, most of the waves you see are caused by A) the wind. 22 The difference (in feet) between high tide and low tide is the C) tide range. 23 A coast where the ocean has risen to flood former land is called a _____________ coast. E) submergent 24 You go to the beach in Australia where the coast trends generally east-west. You see a sand spit that extends to the east. What is the main direction of longshore transport? C) to the east 25 Why is it difficult to correct the pollution problem of excessive nutrients in Chesapeake Bay? D) The pollution is coming from thousands of small sources difficult to identify or correct. 26 A deep-water wave is a wave that is in water C) greater than one half the wavelength. 27 The tide model that includes the effect of land and the coriolis effect on the moving tide wave. B) Dynamic Tide Model 28 When a harbor is created by building a breakwater, why does it usually need to be continuously dredged? . C) longshore transport of sand fills in the harbor. 29 What is an estuary? B) a portion of the ocean that is semi-isolated and diluted by fresh water. . 30 Which of the following methods for cleaning up oil spills causes more environmental damage than it fixes? C) hot water and high-pressure hoses to wash oil off of beaches. 31 Waves coming on to the shore break as curling breakers when . C) the shore shallows very quickly. 32 You come to the beach to find high tide at 10:00 am. About what time tomorrow will you find high tide again? D) 10:50 am 33 Longshore transport refers to B) the down coast movement of sand by waves. 34 Many cities are located on estuaries because A) the protected water makes a good harbor. B) there is fresh water available from the river flowing into the estuary. C) the river provides access and transportation into the interior of the continent. E) A, B, and C 35 For oil booms and skimmers to work, you need A) calm water. B) a relatively small oil spill. C) the equipment in place near the spill. E) A, B, and C 36 The most likely place for a tsunamis to start is E) a subduction zone 37 The tide generating forces are ______________ and _____________. A) gravity, centrifugal 38 Starting on land and moving seaward, the parts of a beach profile are (in order) E) backshore – berm – foreshore – offshore 39 A small creek entering a shallow bay will probably produce A) a well-mixed estuary. 40 The Exxon Valdez oil spill of 1989 was on a high energy, rugged coast so C) the oil rapidly spread down the coasts by waves and currents. 41 You are sunbathing on the beach on the island of Maui, Hawaii and you notice that the sea has suddenly gone out and exposed a wide stretch of the sea floor below the low tide point. You should E) run as fast as you can for high ground. 42 Using equilibrium tidal theory, the tides may be understood as a wave with a wavelength approximately equal to the distance B) half way around the earth (half the circumference). 43 Currents that are created by waves and flow parallel to the shoreline are called _______. D) longshore currents 44 The vertical salinity profile of a _____________ estuary has the same salinity from the surface down to the sea floor. E) well mixed 45 Which phrase best describes modern cleanup technology for oil spills? E) moderately successful in quiet water