Abstract: This paper presents a Secured Wireless Sensor Network-integrated Cloud computing for u-Life Care (SC3). SC3 monitors human health, activities, and shares information among doctors, caregivers, clinics, and pharmacies in the Cloud, so that users can have better care with low cost. SC3 incorporates various technologies with novel ideas including; sensor networks, Cloud computing security, and activities recognition.
1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. What is Cloud Computing? The Cloud computing, coined in late of 2007, currently emerges as a hot topic due to its abilities to offer flexible dynamic IT infrastructures, QoS guaranteed computing environments and configurable software services.
Cloud computing can be defined as follows: “A Cloud is a type of parallel and distributed system consisting of a collection of interconnected and virtualized computers that are dynamically provisioned and presented as one or more unified computing resources based on service-level agreements established through negotiation between the service provider and customers and can be ubiquitously accessed from any connected devices over the internet” Cloud computing started quietly from several seeding technologies such as grid computing, virtualization, SalesForce.com innovative subscription-based business model or Amazon’s effort to scale their ecommerce platform.
However, it differs from traditional ones in that: (1) it is massively scalable, (2) can be encapsulated as an abstract entity that delivers different levels of services to customers anywhere, anytime, and (3) it is driven by economies of scale that is the services can be dynamically. Configured (via virtualization or other approaches) and delivered “ on-demand”.
The Web search popularity, as measured by the Google search trends during the last 12 months, for terms “Cluster computing”, “Grid computing”, and “Cloud computing.
From the Google trends, it can be observed that cluster computing was a popular term during 1990s, from early 2000 Grid computing become popular, and recently Cloud computing started gaining popularity. Meanwhile, market-research firm IDC expects IT Cloud-services spending to grow from about $16 billion in 2008 to about $42 billion by 2013. IDC also predicts Cloud computing spending will account for 25 percent of annual IT expenditure growth by 2013 and nearly a third of the growth the following year.
Cloud Computing has many benefits that the public sector and government IT organizations are certain to want to take advantage of. In very brief summary form they are as follows: Reduced cost, higher gains: Cloud technology is paid incrementally, saving organizations money. Increased storage: Organizations can store more data than on private computer systems. Highly automated: No longer do IT personnel need to worry about keeping software up to date. Flexibility: Cloud computing offers much more flexibility than past computing methods.
The general architecture of Cloud computing is shown as below.
1.2. Why Cloud Computing in u-Life care?
As the standard of living rises, people are more interested in their health and desire well-being life. Today due to aging of population, rising cost of workforce and high quality treatment, threat of new panepidemies and diseases, the cost of life care or healthcare system is increasing worldwide. According to OECD (Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development)
Health data 2008 (shown in Figure 4), total health spending accounted for 15.3% of GDP in the United States in 2006, the highest share in the OECD, and more than six percentage points higher than the average of 8.9% in OECD countries. Korea was 6.4% of GDP to health in 2006. The United States also ranks far ahead of other OECD countries in terms of total health spending
1.3. Problems of Existing Cloud computing to support u-Life care Poor Security and Privacy Support Data for life care services normally composes of personal information, contextual information (e.g. location, user activity information), medical data (e.g. medical history, drug information, medical health record), etc. Such information is highly sensitive and people do not want to disclose them to the public. For example, a patient with HIV positive test may not want to expose his result to the other, even to their family.
Storing data in Cloud leads to more security and privacy problems than traditional computing systems such as distributed systems or grid computing systems. Sensitive data processed outside the enterprise brings with it an inherent level of risk, because outsourced services bypass the "physical, logical and personnel controls" IT shops exert over in-house programs. More dangers and vulnerabilities may cause disrupts of services, theft of information, loss of privacy, damage of information. On the other hand, because any one can access to Clouds, it brings more chances for malicious users to launch their hostile programs. Hostile people can also give instructions to good programs, or bad guys corrupting or eavesdropping on communications.
1.4 Practical Usage Our proposed SC3 can be deployed for various u-Life care services, including but not limited to: Safety monitoring services for home users: SC3’s WSN can monitor home user’s movement, location by using various sensors. The sensor data is then disseminated to the Clouds, from that SC3’s Life care services such as emergency caregivers can monitor and has immediate response in case of emergent situations like heart attack.
Information sharing services : With SC3, patient information and data can be accessed globally and resources can be shared by a group of hospitals rather than each hospital having a separate IT infrastructure. Cloud computing would help hospitals to achieve more efficient use of their hardware and software investments and increase profitability by improving the utilization of resources to the maximum. The SC3 can provide a flexible platform for public-health departments to upload real-time health data in a timely manner to assist state and national health officials in the early identification and tracking of disease outbreaks, environmental-related health problems, and other issues.
Emergency-connection services: SC3 can be deployed to real-time monitor home environments, including gas, fire, thief, etc. Through SC3, an alarm system connects to users, u-119, police department can give an emergency alert in case any emergent situation occurs. Users can monitor their home, their family health anywhere, any time with any device: SC3 Clouds and WSN enable user to access their home environment, their family’s health information with any kind of connected devices over Internets such as cell phone, PDA, laptop, computer. 2. CONTRIBUTION OF THIS STUDY
Our proposed SC3 can help in enhancing capabilities and provides tremendous value by achieving efficient use of software and hardware investments. Our infrastructure drives profitability by improving resources utilization and increasing their scalability while maintaining strong privacy and security essential in u-Life care. SC3 can provide cost efficient model for automating hospitals and other life care agencies, managing real-time data from various sensors, efficiently disseminating information to consumers, support privacy and strong authentication mechanism, reducing IT complexity and at the same time introducing innovative solutions and updates.
Our versatile architecture makes it possible to launch web 2.0 applications quickly and also upgrade ulife care IT applications easily as and when required. Our automated secure framework of cloud computing would provide increasingly cheaper and innovative services. Technically, our SC3 infrastructure can contribute in the following ways in u-Life care: This architecture helps in eliminating the time and effort needed to roll a healthcare IT application in a life care centre .
Flexible and swift access to expert opinion. Intelligent personal health monitoring system. Synergy of information from individual sensors (better insight into the physiological state and level of activity).
Hospitals, silver care centers and life care agencies could share our secured infrastructure with vast number of systems linked together (i.e. secured sensor network to support real time information) for reducing cost and increasing efficiency. This means real-time availability of patient information for doctors, nursing staff and other support services not within the country but possibly across various countries as medical professionals can access patient information from any internet enabled device without installing any software.
The EMR software or the LIS software and information can be located in our Cloud and not on the users or computer. Patient information and data can be accessed globally maintaining proper privacy and security policy and resources can be shared by a group of hospitals or life care agencies rather than each hospital having a separate IT infrastructure. Rapid response to critical life care regardless of geographic barriers (anytime, anywhere). Management of medical expertise also in rural areas.
Savings for ubiquitous healthcare service providers and patients in procedural, travel, and claim processing cost Reduced use of traditional emergency services
Improved non-emergency services Greater awareness of services among rural and remote residents and caregivers Timely accessibility of critical information in the event of emergencies.
CONCLUSION This paper introduces Secured WSN-integrated Cloud Computing for u-Life Care, called SC3. SC3 monitors patient’s health as well as activities and shares this information among doctors, caregivers, clinics, and pharmacies from the Cloud to provide low- cost and high-quality care to users. My proposed system is a combination of various technologies with novel proposed ideas. It provides a number of featured components, including security and privacy control, WSN-Cloud integration mechanism, dynamic collaboration between Clouds, and an activity recognition engine to enable many u-Life care services. I am also present my primary result of development, and then discuss about its potentialities and benefits.
FUTURE WORK There are still many works ahead. The first future work that I am planning to work on is to provide more services to different kinds of patient’s disease such as stroke, Parkinson disease, etc. The number of activities will be increased to support more services. A number of wireless medical sensors are under developed. They will be used to collect health data of patient seamlessly. I will focus more on security and privacy for Cloud Computing. Currently, most users do not want to store their personal health data on Clouds because it is not safe and reliable. Another work is to extend my development into various such as manufacturing, military services.
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 Taejoon Park and Kang G. Shin. LiSP: A lightweight security protocol for wireless sensor networks. Trans. on Embedded Computing Sys., 3(3):634–660, 2004.