In a way in the society, civilian oversight effectively helps in promoting the ideal goal of accountability and transparency in the legal institutions and organizations and the government in general. As the civilian participates or critical observes the processes and movement in the government, they become aware of the possibilities of corruption and other illegal action of the officials holding position in the government.
By becoming enthusiastic and interested in the projects and programs of the government, the civil society can monitor if the actions of the officials are done with due and proper process. In turn, the awareness of the government officials and other organization management regarding civilian oversight push them to adhere to proper process thus promoting accountability and transparency within their position. Knowing that they are accountable for the results of the answer and that the society are critically monitoring and aware of their actions prompt them to follow process standard.
Indeed, civilian oversight promote the goal of accountability and transparency as the interest and critical observance of the people empowered by the individual freedom and rights become the moving factor in the normative process in their organization or society. 2) What is civilian oversight? What is the goal of civilian oversight? In the social organization perspective, civilian oversight is generally defined as the watchful care or supervision of the public towards the events and process in the society or organization influence the ideal motives and nature of their group.
Civilian oversight is also considered as the active participation or enthusiastic inclusion of each individual in their organization or society in promoting the ideal character and values in their management, processes and their collective organization interest. Civilian oversight in the society or an organization manifests under ideal goals and interest particularly on the promotion of positive character in the management and the group in general.
The people’s interest becomes the moving factor towards the promotion of the goals of the values of accountability, transparency, responsibility, fairness, and others on the actions and processes of the group particularly on the management sector. As such, civilian oversight becomes the force or mechanism that motivates the people and the leaders towards adhering to the standard and ideal processes in achieving the best interest and common goal of the organization thus, reducing illegitimate and illegal use of authority and power.
In addition, civilian oversight prompts also the people to participate actively in the events and process of their organization or society leading to the efficient realization of their common interest and goals. With the existence of civilian oversight in a society or an organization, their leaders can effectively manage their organization under due process for the ideal interest of the whole. 3) Identify the different theories of criminal justice-based corruption. Explain which theory you believe best explains why corruption occurs.
Corruption is mainly defined as the illicit and illegal use of one’s power or authority to gain advantage over a situation or an organization for personal interest. The existence of corruption in a society is critical considered and evaluated by the society involved as this can lead to serious social and organizational problems negating the ideal values and effectiveness of their management or government system. However, in addressing the issue of corruption, the concern society or group is also considering the primary causes of this illicit action.
There are several theories regarding the cause of existence of corruption in a group or society which each respectively pertaining to a specific issue as the main factor to the situation. On the general perspective, corruption exists due to several factor as influenced by different theories thus, making the detrimental concept to be complicated. Some of the theories include relating corruption as the product of human nature or as the result of a weak institution or organization, or another product of an already corrupt environment or situation.
Considering these theories, the aspect that relates corruption to the human nature manifests to be the most effective in explaining the existence of the illicit action. It is part of the human nature that makes each individual a political and social animal making them capable or susceptible into committing corruption. Due to the aggressive nature and behavior of human beings in their organization relationship, most resort to the development or the practice of corruption to gain certain advantages to their interest.
Thus, the illicit act of corruption can be widely considered to be product of human nature founded by the society to satisfy their cognitive nature for personal needs such as self-preservation and the need for social advantage and power.
Goldsmith, Andrew & Lewis, Colleen (2000). Civilian Oversight of Policing. Hart Publishing. ISBN-10: 1841130303. Heidenheimer, Arnold & Johnston, Michael (2001). Political Corruption: Concepts and Contexts. Transaction Publishers. 3rd Edition. ISBN-10: 0765807610.