Civil Rights Movement Summary

During the Civil Rights Movement, blacks and their allies wanted three primary objectives: integrated public schools, breakup of public accommodations such as buses and trains, water fountains and restrooms, restaurants, the privileged to hike to street unmolested and perhaps the most significant, voting rights.

The undemanding justice personified in these requests had waited on the margins of political life since the 1870s disloyalty of black Reconstruction by officials and their masters. Not that advocate of black freedom was sluggish in the short-term, but some victories and defeats, mainly in the fight against killing and permissible frame-ups, these requests remained contentious and were basically unimportant.

 The Civil Rights Movement was significant for the United States to be able to declare itself as a free and great nation where all citizens have equal civil rights during the Cold War. The experimentation made during the period known as ‘separate but equal’ confirmed to be a disappointment to every black Americans.

They wanted to obtain equal rights that should be given to all American citizens including African-American, in effect; an individual had to have same access to all the privileges given by the government. However, this was not obtained until new set of leaders appeared from both the political body and the church. From Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. up to President Lyndon B. Johnson who proclaimed and signed the Civil Rights Act of 1968, and many other unsung heroes that led the way to stand firm and fight against the injustice they have encountered in the United States.

The Rise of the Civil Rights Movement

When two members of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), Rosa Pars and D. Nixon, glowed what soon became a large-scale boycott of buses and white-owned businesses in Montgomery, Alabama. This is for the reason that a white bus driver arrested Parks when she declined to follow rules that obliged blacks to shift to the back of buses when no vacant seats where available for whites. In effect, the Montgomery movement inspired Martin Luther King Jr. to head a civil rights organization.

Thus, by 1957, King had built his Southern Leadership Conference (SCLC) to take on the resistance of the African-American civil rights. Moreover, two major progresses in 1957 encouraged the advocates to join the civil rights movements. The first one is the passage of a Civil Rights Act, which should be passed and approved by Congress since Reconstruction.

However, it built a Civil Rights Division inside the Department of Justice as well as Civil Rights Commission that was allowed to examine racial difficulties and give solutions. The second one was President Dwight D. Eisenhower’s proclamation to hurl federal troops to Little Rock, Arkansas in order to set up order and implement a symbol of desegregation plan by acknowledging nine black scholars to the city’s all-white Central High School.

Violence on National Television

In the early months of 1963, Martin Luther King Jr. prepared protests and demonstrations in Birmingham, Alabama. The local chief of police, Eugene Connor, told his men to shoot discharge water against the demonstrators and set free ferocious dogs on the resisters. However, a television network captured the string scenes on the demonstrations, several shots of them showing attacks and arrests of black children, and transmitted the images to shocked national viewers. As a result, many Northerners became attentive of the troubles of many African-Americans in the South.

Thus, as much as any sole event in the account of the modern civil rights movement, the brutality showed by the whites in Birmingham obliged the American citizens to consider grave federal act promoting or violating civil rights. Thus, in June 1963, after the governor of Alabama, George Wallace, prove of struggle to desegregation of the state university, President John F. Kennedy attend to a national television viewers to pass for a federal civil rights law, which would primarily forbid racial segregation in community accommodations.

Assassination of John F. Kennedy

When President John F. Kennedy was assassinated, his civil rights bill appeared hindered on Capitol Hill. However, the successor of the good president, Lyndon Johnson of Texas, demonstrated to be masterful strategist and a bestowed champion of a strong and eloquent bill. In June 1968, he marked into a law, a list that not only included job unfairness title but also certified construction of a new organization, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). Although, school segregation continued to be persistent until the early 1970s, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was a milestone assessment by any standard, concluding segregation in a mass of public accommodations.


School desegregation, Freedom Riders and non violent protest were just a few of the civil rights battles. The movement inched along, one lunch counter at a time. One sports team at a time. One school, one store and one town were obtained because of the Civil Rights Movement. Hundreds of thousands of people took part in the effort for freedom and equal rights for African-American.

The civil rights movement helped African American move into positions of power. For example, in 1967, Thurgood Marshall became the first African-American Supreme Court Justice. Recently, African-Americans Colin Powell and Condoleeza Rice have served as U.S. secretary on state. In 2008, Barack Obama was the first African-American elected as the president of the United States of America.

Work Cited Aronowitz, Stanley. “Race: the Continental Divide.” The Nation. Volume 43 (2001). 45 – 47. Levy, Peter B. The Civil Rights Movements: Guide to Historic Events of the 20th Century. Westport: Greenwood Press. 1998.