Civil Liberties and Civil Rights

Issues chosen and reason for choosing it. Personal and public expression. Issue was chosen because there is a constitutional guarantee to express one’s views in a public without the one’s message being suppressed by organizers.

Major issues discussed in the overview

It discusses the first Amendment right of citizens to views opinions against the government. It also highlights the extent to which one can voice his or her opinion with government interference.

Supreme Court case opinion on the First Amendment

In City of Madison Joint School District No. 8 v. Wisconsin Employment Relations Commission, (1976) the U.S. Supreme Court went on to explain that in a public discussion the organizers of such a forum cannot use their contractual rights with the participants in the forum. The court established that allowing one said to have monopoly in expressing views to the government would be in contrast with constitutional guarantees on speech, (firstamendmentcenter.org, 2008)

Importance of the term `militia` in the Second Amendment

The term ‘militia’ is important because it refers to a well regulated military force made up of ordinary citizens who had the duty of protection a nation which was full establishing itself from attacks by outside forces and from rebellions from within.

The Second Amendment an anachronism in the 20th century

The Second Amendment is an anachronism in the 20th century. Because there have been major changes in its meaning. as the militia which it was designed to protect as it was unlike the Amendment’s initial intention not made up of citizens unlike in the 18th century.

Constitutional significance of U.S. v. Miller

The case was important as it demystified the meaning of the Second Amendment as per the law. The Court ruled that the Amendment is aimed at guaranteeing the state militia’s continuation and effectiveness in protecting the nation.

Why the Warren Burger termed the NRA’s use of the Amendment a `fraud`

The NRA’s use of the Amendment is fraud as it say that it guarantees every citizen the right to own a gun contrary to actual language of the Amendment which objects to the uncontrolled owning of any kind of weapon by the citizenry.

The decision in U.S. v. Emerson and why it is termed a `renegade` decision

The decision in U.S. v. Emerson is termed as renegade because the presiding judge neither followed usual judicial practice nor cite legal precedent in making the decision to restore firearms to a domestic abuser. This was contrary to jurisprudence and precedence, (bradycampaign.org, 2008).

The NRA’s view on why the Framers included the second amendment

The framers included the Second Amendment because they had the revolutionary experience and therefore the Amendment would guarantee an armed citizenry which would act as a defense against any possible arbitrary or tyrannical government acts.

Why the NRA believes that Second Amendment is not obsolete

The NRA believes that the Second Amendment is not obsolete though some argue that it is by making comparison to the fact that the First Amendment has been forcefully denounced by civil libertarians yet it has not been deemed as being obsolete, (nraila.org, 2008).

The “incremental” approach and why the NRA believe it is a dangerous approach

The approach refers to a situation where the individual’s constitutional guarantee is weighed against governmental or societal need. The NRA believes it is dangerous because it will inevitably lead to loss or individual rights or even their total destruction.

The NRA interpretation of the Miller decision

The NRA felt that the court avoided making an unconditional decision as regards the constitutionality of Second Amendment but instead came up with a test for measuring whether a statute relating to guns was constitutional, (nraila.org, 2008).

 The goals of the NRA are preservation of the shooting tradition and Second Amendment.

It encourages participation of members by mailing them important information. This empowers members to take specific actions such as calling law maker and writing them letters. The NRA uses the Second Amendment to influence public opinion. This is by explaining that the Amendment sought to guarantee each individual the right to keep and bear arms, (nraila.org, 2008).

The Brady campaign’s goal is to prevent gun violence. The campaign does not seek the ban of guns but control of their ownership. The Brady campaign uses the Second Amendment to fight gun violence. The campaign influences public by providing shocking statistics of damage caused by guns. The campaign also influences policy makers by revealing to them the lies tendered by gun lobby groups, (bradycampaign.org, 2008)

The NAACP’s mission is to ensure political, social, educational, and economic rights of all persons. It also seeks to eliminate racial hatred and discrimination, (naacp.org, 2008).  The mission of the King Center is to promote Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s philosophy and also honoring his legacy by building upon his vision of America and the world, (thekingcenter.com, 2008). The Nation of Islam has the mission of restoring and to resurrecting people identified as being from the Shabazz tribe who were perceived to have been lost but had been found, (noi.org, 2008).

The Human Rights Center (HRC) is a civil rights organization with the sole purpose of fighting and promoting equal rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people, (hrc.org, 2008). The Log Cabin Republicans (LCR) is a civil rights organization which aims at working with the Republican Party to work for providing equal right for all Americans, and this includes lesbians and gays, (logcabin.org, 2008). This is different from HRC in that though both fight for rights of gay and lesbians, the chief priority of the LCR is working for equal rights of all Americans.

The NARAL, NOW and Eagle Forum all advocate for the rights of American women to make choices. These are on issues such as of family and participation in government. NARAL and NOW advocate for the rights of women. Eagle’s Forum advocates for the rights of both men and women.

Compare and Contrast AIM with the UFW

UFW aims at provides inspiration and other tools to farm workers and other working people so that they can  share in society's bounty. It is the largest successful farm workers union. The union also promotes innovation, protest through disciplined means and empowerment of the people, (ufw.org, 2008).AIM is aimed at fighting injustices perpetrated against Indians. It also fights to help Native American people to regain their human rights for the restoration for injustices, (aimovement.org, 2008).

References

American Indian Movement. (2007).National Coalition on Racism in Sports & Media. Retrieved        on November 29, 2008 from

<<www.aimovement.org>>.

Brady Campaign. (2008). The Second Amendment. Retrieved on November 29, 2008 from

<<www.bradycampaign.org>>.

First Amendment Center, (2008). Speech: Personal and Public Expression. Retrieved on        November 29, 2008 from

<<www.firstamendmentcenter.org>>.

Human Rights Campaign. (2006). Working For Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual And Transgender Equal         Rights: Who We Are. Retrieved on November 29, 2008 from

<<www.hrc.org>>.

Log Cabin Republicans. (2006). Gay and Lesbian Families. Retrieved on November 29, 2008           from

<< online.logcabin.org>>.

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. (2006). Working For Lesbian,            Gay, Bisexual And Transgender Equal Rights: Who We Are. Retrieved on November 29,            2008 from

<<www.naacp.org>>.

National Rifles Association. Institute for Legislative Action, (2008). Federal Court Cases        Regarding The Second Amendment: U.S. Supreme Court Cases. Retrieved on November      29, 2008 from

<<www.nraila.org>>.

The King Center. (2004). The King Center: Welcome. Retrieved on November 29, 2008 from

<<www.thekingcenter.com>>.

United Farm Workers. (2006).Our Vision. Retrieved on November 29, 2008 from

<< www.ufw.org>>.

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