Chemical periodicity

AbstractChemical periodicity was demonstrated using different samples of elements from Group IA, IIA and IVA. These samples are: Li2CO3, Na2CO3, K2CO3, MgCO3, CaCO3, BaCO3, Carbon, Tin, Silicon and Lead. Each sample was placed in a test tube, (one sample and one test tube) and the physical color, appearance and state was defined. Water was used to test the solubility of the element. We use blue and red litmus paper to test the Metal Oxides in Group IIA. A balanced Chemical equation was written to show the reaction between oxides and water.


Periodicity, generally related to the so call “invention” of the Periodic Table. In that table, Mendeleev arranges elements according to their molecular mass into rows and columns. And amazingly, those in the same columns have similar properties. However, at the time Mendeleev invented the table, there is a few elements. So he named “missing” elements (in other words, cells) in the table and predicted their properties… Periodicity, in terms of Chemistry is the properties of elements that, if you know where it is in the Periodic Table, you can actually “predict” its properties without actually trying to find them out yourself.


For the Group IA & IIA Elements, each small amount samples of Li2CO3, Na2CO3, K2CO3, MgCO3, CaCO3 and BaCO3 was place in the different test tubes. After placing them in the test tubes, we identified the physical state, color, and appearance of each. Then we test the solubility of each sample byusing water.

For the Group IVA Element, each small amount samples of C, Sn, Si, and Pb was placed in different test tubes. Then its physical state, color and appearance were identified.

For Group IIA Metal Oxides, a small amount sample of MgO and CaO was placed indifferent test tubes. 10 ml H2O was added to each samples and it was test trough the use of litmus paper. A balanced chemical equation for each sample was written to show the reaction of the oxides and water.


| Samples | Physical State | Color | Appearance | Solubility | | | | | | | |Group IA & IIA | | | | | | Li2CO3 | Solid | White |fine crystal powder | partially soluble | | Na2CO3 | Solid | White |free-flowing powder | partially soluble | | K2CO3 | Solid | White | lumpy powder | partially soluble | | MgCO3 | Solid | White | lumpy powder | not soluble | | CaCO3 | Solid | White | lumpy powder | not soluble | | BaCO3 | Solid | White |crystalline powder | soluble | | | | | | | |Group IVA | | | | | | C | Solid |

Black | irregularly shaped | Not Applicable | | Sn | Solid | White | irregularly shaped | Not Applicable | | Si | Solid | White |free-flowing powder | Not Applicable | | Pb | Solid | Metallic Silver |free-flowing powder | Not Applicable | | | | | | | |Group IIA Metal Oxides | | | Blue Litmus Paper |Red Litmus Paper | | MgO | Solid | | No Reaction |Red turned to Blue | | CaO | Solid | | No reaction |Red turned to Blue |

According to the data and information shown on the table above the elements shows chemical periodicity. Its shows also that in every group there are similar characteristics that is visible in every element. The Group IA & IIA Elements shows the same characteristics in physical state, color, and appearance but the solubility has some variations. In Group IVA only the physical state are the same while the color and appearance have variations. In Group IIA Metal Oxides shows also similar characteristics in physical state, reaction to blue litmus paper and most especially in red litmus paper that shows a reaction.

De La Salle University-DasmariñasCollege of Science & Computer StudiesPHYSICAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT


Submitted by: Kathrine Karen BautistaDate Performed: July 31, 2013 Lance CenizaCYS: CPE13 Date Submitted: August 7, 2013 Group #: 2 Prof.: Engr. Imelda Galera