During the Industrial Era, What “Things did Europeans seek Overseas”?| Raw materials(metals, vegetable oils, dyes, cotton, and hemp—needed to feed the machines of Europe, not spices or manufactured goods, were the main products the Europeans wanted.| What fueled European imperialist expansion in the Industrial Age?| From internal rivalries between the European powers themselves.| What was the chief interest of the Dutch and English East India Companies?| Profits| How did the communication impact the trading companies?|
The Commanders in the field could no longer act on their own decisions because now the owners of the trading companies could now give orders and control their companies from a farther distance, as opposed to before where it would take months to send an order to the colonies.| What Country controlled Java?| Dutch|
During the 18th century, how many wars did the British and the French find themselves on opposite sides?| Five major wars| What tactic did Robert Clive use in his impressive victory over the ruler Nawab Siraj-us-duala in the Battle of Plassey? (List three tactics)| 1. Hired spies to give him detailed accounts of Nawab’s army with money he got from Hindu Bankers. 2. Clive bought off the Nawab’s chief general and several of his key allies.
3. Paid his soldiers well while Nawab did not. 4. Nawab’ Indian allies defected and Clive had superior artillery.| Why was the battle of Plassey so significant to the British? | The British gained control of the sizeable Bengal-Bihar region which established the foundations of Britain’s Indian and global empire.| Like the Dutch, how did the British often gain control of the Indian kingdom?| The British often became involved in succession disputes and ended up controlling the kingdoms being contested. The British were easily able to conquer the warring states of what used to be the Mughal Empire.|
Why were Indian ports essential to the British?| They were essential to British sea power east of the Cape of Good Hope; India became the major outlet for British overseas investments and manufactured goods as well as a major source of key raw materials.| How did the tropical environments influence the Dutch and the English?| They had to adapt the ancient and sophisticated host cultures of south and southeast Asia. This is because their canal cities were breeding grounds for insects and microbes that carried diseases.| How did Lord Cornwallis check corruption in India?
Who did he mistrust?| He cleaned up the courts and reduced the power of local British administrators to check corruption. He mistrusted the Indians; this caused him to limit their role in governing the empire.| What did the Evangelicals and the Utilitarians try to reform in India and how?| To put an end to the slave trade; to eradicate Indian social abuses to their campaigns for human improvement.
They did so by pushing British institutions and ways of thinking in India as well as the eradication of what they considered Indian superstitions and social abuse.| What Indian practice became a major confrontation between the Indians and British?| Sati, the ritualistic burning of Hindu widows on the funeral pyres of their deceased husbands.| What gave Europeans power over the rest of the world?| Science, industry, heightened economic competition and political rivalries between the European powers.| Many political leaders believed having colonies was essential to being a ____________|
Great power.| What economic crisis did leaders of industrialized nations have little experience with?| Overproduction and unemployment| How did technological innovations push the Europeans ahead of all other peoples?| Their superior weaponry allowed them to wage war successfully against massed cavalries or infantries. Steam powered boats, iron hulls, and massive guns gave them even more naval advantage. Made wars lopsided.|
What fighting tactics did less advanced countries use against the Europeans?| Attack with spears, arrows, and leather shields. Organized guerrilla warfare. Banditry proved to be the most effective. | Give examples of “contested settler colonies”.| South Africa, New Zealand, and Hawaii.| In African and Asian colonies, what did Europeans exploit or use to put down resistance and maintain control? Give an example.| Longstanding ethnic and cultural divisions between the peoples of their new African or Asian colonies to put down resistance and maintain control. |
How did the British use “the locals” in the colonies?| Recruited local Christians for the police force, helped British rule additions to their empire, sent locals to western schooling to make them fit for jobs as government clerks or railway mechanics.| What policy “stunted” the growth of the middle-class in black Africa?| The policy where schooling was not promoted in Africa.| Who was to blame for the growing social gap between colonizers and colonized?
Why?| European women and their families because they looked down on liaisons between European men and Asian or African women.| Describe the conditions/treatment of the colonized peoples who were forced to produce.| They were poorly paid, if at all and their families would be used as payment.| Why did the Boers and Australians have a different experience when compared to the settlers of Canada?| | Why did the Boers rebel against the British?| The eradication of slavery and other interferences with the lives of the Boers. |
What was the “Great Trek”? Who did the Boers encounter?| When the Boers migrated in covered wagon away from the British and to the rolling grassy plains that make up much of the South African interior. Populous, militarily powerful, and well-organized African states built by Bantu peoples such as the Zulus and the Xhosa.| As Hawaiian population declined, what group was brought in before 1800 and after 1868 to be used as domestic servants?| Chinese before, Japanese after.| How did the style of colonial rule and patterns of social interaction between colonizer and colonized change drastically in the late 19th century?| R
acism and social snobbery became pervasive in contacts between the colonizers and their African and Asian subordinates. They believed that they were the most advanced culturally and evolutionarily. | What did Europeans believe was their “God given destiny”?| To remake the world in the image of industrial Europe. |