Chapter 11 oceanography

For coastal oceans where deep mixing does not occur, discuss the effect that offshore winds and fresh water runoff will have on salinity distribution. How will the winter and summer seasons affect the temperature distribution in the water column? -Coastal waters are those relatively shallow water areas that adjoin continents or island. Winter and Summer Seasons drastically affect climate and temperature distribution in the water column

Describe the difference between vertically mixed and slat wedge estuaries in terms of salinity distribution, depth, and volume of river flow. Which displays the more classical estuarine circulation pattern? -Vertically mixed estuary is a shallow, low volume estuary where the net flow always proceeds from the head of the estuary toward its mouth

Discuss factors that cause the surface salinity of Chesapeake Bay to be greater along its east side, and why periods of summer anoxia in deep water are becoming increasingly severe with time. -Beneath the pycnocline, which can be as shallow as 5 meters, waters may become anoxic from may through August, as dead organic matter decays in the deep water causing it to become severe over time

Name the two types of coastal wetland environments and the latitude ranges where each will likely develop. How do wetlands contribute to the biology of the oceans and the cleansing of polluted river water? -Salt marshes and mangrove swamps

What factors lead to a wide seasonal range of salinity in Laguna Madre? -Seasonal changes caused its wide seasonal range of salinity. Why would many marine pollution experts consider oil among the least damaging pollutants in the ocean? – Because oil is a hydrocarbine

Discuss techniques used to clean oil spills. Why is it important to begin the cleanup immediately? -It goes through primary treatment, where solids are allowed to settle and dewater, and secondary treatment, where it is exposed to bacteria-killing chlorine.

When and where was the world’s largest oil spill? How many times larger was it than the Exxon Valdez oil spill? -Kuwait, Saudi Arabia January 1991 How would dumping sewage in deep water off the East Coast help reduce the negative effects to the ocean bottom? -Some Nutrients would help the ocean bottom

Discuss the animal populations that clearly suffered from the effects of DDT and the way in which this negative effect was manifested. -Many egg shells were affected negatively from DDT

What causes Minamata disease? What are the symptoms of the disease in humans? Mercury Poisoning. Symptoms include ataxia, Numbness in the hands and feet, general muscle weakness, narrowing of the field of vision and damage to hearing and speech. What is non-point-source pollution and how does it get to the ocean? What other ways does trash get into the ocean? – Non Point source pollution is caused by humans and it gets to the ocean from the sewer and by wind.

What are non-native species? Why can they be so damaging to ecosystems? -non native species are species of animals or plants that were brought to one place from another country or continent, they can be damaging because it isn’t their specific environment.

Critical Thinking Exercises

Discuss reasons why less developed nations believe that the open ocean is the common heritage of all, whereas the more developed nations believe that the open ocean’s resources belong to those who recover them.

Based in their origin, draw and describe the four major classes of estuaries. List and describe the three main problems that floating plastic trash presents to marine organisms. Of the three, which one is potentially the most serious threat? Explain.

Without consulting the textbook, define pollution. Then consider these items and determine if each one is a pollutant based on your definition (and refine you definition as necessary): Dead seaweed on the beach

Natural oil seepsA small amount of sewageWarm water dumped into the oceanSound from boats in the ocean

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