Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad Company

PETITIONER: Santa Clara County
RESPONDENT: Southern Pacific Railroad Company et al.
LOCATION:

DOCKET NO.: None
DECIDED BY: Waite Court (1882-1887)
LOWER COURT:

ARGUED: Jan 26, 1886 / Jan 27, 1886 / Jan 28, 1886 / Jan 29, 1886
DECIDED: May 10, 1886

Facts of the case

The state of California taxed fences owned by Southern Pacific Railway Company, but Southern Pacific asserted that the state constitution only allowed taxes on "the franchise, roadway roadbed, rails, and rolling stock." Southern Pacific also claimed that state tax board did not properly subtract its outstanding mortgages from the value of its property. Southern Pacific refused to pay taxes on its fences and the difference account for by subtracting outstanding mortgages. Santa Clara County brought action against it in a state court. The county argued that since it could tax the land which situated the fences, it could also tax the additional value of the land added by the fences. Southern Pacific had the action moved to a federal district court, which ruled that the state did not have jurisdiction to tax fences. The county appealed to the Supreme Court.

Question

Did the California constitution allow the state to increase property taxes against railroad companies when the companies added additional value to the property by building fences? Did the state tax board wrongfully tax property without deducting for the outstanding mortgages against the property owners?