Maryland v. Dyson

PETITIONER: Maryland
RESPONDENT: Dyson
LOCATION: Elizabeth Township, Allegheny County

DOCKET NO.: 98-1062
DECIDED BY: Rehnquist Court (1986-2005)
LOWER COURT: State appellate court

CITATION: 527 US 465 (1999)
DECIDED: Jun 21, 1999

Facts of the case

Acting on a tip from a confidential informant and a subsequent investigation, sheriff's deputies stopped and searched Kevin Dyson's automobile. The deputies found 23 grams of crack cocaine in a duffel bag in the trunk. Dyson was convicted of conspiracy to possess cocaine with intent to distribute. In reversing, the Maryland Court of Special Appeals held that in order for the automobile exception to the warrant requirement under the Fourth Amendment to apply, there must be not only probable cause to believe that evidence of a crime is contained in the automobile, but also a separate finding of an exigency which precluded the police from obtaining a warrant. Although there was abundant probable cause, the court concluded that the search violated the Fourth Amendment because there was no exigency that prevented or even made it significantly difficult for the police to obtain a search warrant.

Question

Does the Fourth Amendment require police to obtain a search warrant before searching a vehicle which they have probable cause to believe contains illegal drugs?