RESPONDENT: Immigration and Naturalization Service
LOCATION: Alabama State Capitol
DOCKET NO.: 28
DECIDED BY: Warren Court (1962-1965)
LOWER COURT: United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit
CITATION: 375 US 217 (1963)
ARGUED: Oct 17, 1963 / Oct 21, 1963
DECIDED: Dec 16, 1963
Facts of the case
Media for Foti v. Immigration and Naturalization ServiceAudio Transcription for Oral Argument - October 17, 1963 in Foti v. Immigration and Naturalization Service
Audio Transcription for Oral Argument - October 21, 1963 in Foti v. Immigration and Naturalization Service
-- Francesco Foti, Petitioner, versus Immigration and Naturalization Service.
Philip R. Monahan:
Mr. Chief Justice, may it please the Court.
Before the recess on Thursday the Court will recall, I had been seeking to show that the party's construction of Section 106 (a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act which – which would construe that Section as applying to the Attorney General's denial of discretionary determinations during the deportation proceeding as well as to the basic deportability adjudication was supported by the literal language of the statute rather than the majority construction.
Today in the time remaining, I would like to show that that construction is corroborated and confirmed by the legislative history of Section 106 and then to make a point by point reputation of certain objections which the majority found with the party's construction in this case.
The fundamental purpose of this new statute, Section 106, the legislative history shows, was to abbreviate the process of judicial review in order to forestall certain dilatory tactics in the Courts, which had come to Congress' attention.
The chief feature of the plan was the elimination of the previous first step in the judicial review process, the suit in the District Court and thereby to limit the review procedure to suits in the Court of Appeals subject of course to the certiorari jurisdiction of this Court.
Now in elucidating the purpose of legislation on the floor of the House of Representatives, representative Walter, the Chairman of the Immigration and Nationality Affairs Subcommittee of the House Judiciary Committee and the chief sponsor of this measure, said and this language appears at Page 26 of the government's brief, “Most important by eliminating review in the District Courts, the bill would obviate one of the primary causes of delay in the final determination of all questions which may arise in a deportation proceeding.”
It seems to the government that that language is particularly pertinent in light of the fact which I pointed out to the Court on Thursday that from the beginning discretionary determinations have been among the issues which have arisen in the deportation proceeding.
Now secondly as examples of the evils which this proposed legislation was designed to correct, the committee reports accompanying the bills which eventuated in Section 106, referred to a number of case histories or proceedings which in the view of the committee had involved abuse of the judicial process by dilatory suits.
Included among these, were several in which the alien had sought review, among other orders, orders denying discretionary determinations which seemed to the government to be further collaborative of the objective of this legislation.
Thirdly there appears in the committee reports a reference chart which illustrates in diagrammatic form the various administrative steps leading to a final order of deportation.
Now that chart we have reproduced at Page 94 of the government's brief for the convenience of the Court.
And it shows that the, as I say in this diagrammatic form, that the final order of deportation is the ultimate product resulting from first of course the deportability adjudication.
Secondly, the denial of suspension of deportation or a voluntary departure where one or the other of those forms of relief have been requested and thirdly the failure by the Board of Immigration Appeals where an appeal to that body has been taken to disturb the special enquiry officers' decision.
Fourthly and finally, there occurred on the house floor, during the debates on this measure in the Congress immediately preceding the Congress in which the bill was ultimately enacted an important colloquy between representative Walter, the chairman of the committee, representative Moore another member of the committee who was a co-sponsor of this measure, and representative Lindsay of New York who as the dissenting judges below pointed out was very familiar with the part played in the deportation process by discretionary determinations as a result of his argument of Jay against Boyd before this Court on behalf of the government.
Now this colloquy is referred to at some length is both the majority and the descending opinions below and it is set forth fully in the government's brief.
Philip R. Monahan:
It appears at Pages 30 to 35 Mr. Justice and I will just take the time at this time to refer the Court to the -- that part of the colloquy, which appears on Page 34 of the government's brief in which Mr. Lindsay says, “Is it not true,” speaking to Mr. Moore, “Is it not true that the words, ‘final deportation order' does not take effect until after the determination of the question of suspension?”
Mr. Moore says, “That is the manner in which I understand the meaning of the term as used in the pending bill.”
Then Mr. Walter says, “Mr. Speaker, during the course of the discussion, the gentleman from New York, Mr. Lindsay, raised a question of suspension of deportation.
I might say to the gentleman from New York, that the six months period on the question of finality of an order applies to the final administrative adjudication of the applications for a suspension of deportation just as it would apply to any other issue brought up in a deportation proceeding.”
I would like to turn now to various specific criticisms of the party's construction made by the majority below.
None in our view have validity.
The majority refers to paragraph four of the exceptions, there are nine exceptions to the application of Section 106, and that appears on Page 58 of the government's brief, in which it is stated that except as provided in Clause B of paragraph 5 of this subsection, the petition, that is the petition for review, shall be determined solely upon the administrative record upon which the deportation order is based.
And the Attorney General's findings of fact, if supported by reasonable substantial and probative evidence on the record considered as a whole, shall be conclusive.
Now, we agree with the majority that that clause, paragraph 4 applies and can only apply to the deportability adjudication, because a discretionary determination as the Court knows does not, in all circumstances, have to be rendered upon the record, materials or the record, maybe used under some circumstances, as the Court said in Jay against Boyd and also since – precisely because it is a discretionary determination it does not have to be based upon the reasonable substantial evidence rule.
However, the majority assumes that the scope of section -- of that paragraph 4, which I just read, is co-extensive with the scope of the principal provision of Section 106.
Now the government that -- we think there is some force to this point.