Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1)

PETITIONER:Oliver Brown, Mrs. Richard Lawton, Mrs. Sadie Emmanuel, et al.
RESPONDENT:Board of Education of Topeka, Shawnee County, Kansas, et al.
LOCATION: Monroe School

DOCKET NO.: 1
DECIDED BY: Warren Court (1953-1954)
LOWER COURT: Federal district court

ARGUED: Dec 09, 1952 / Dec 10, 1952 / Dec 11, 1952
REARGUED: Dec 07, 1953 / Dec 08, 1953 / Dec 09, 1953
DECIDED: May 17, 1954

ADVOCATES:
Thurgood Marshall – argued for the appellants in No. 101,reargued for the appellants in No. 2 and No. 4, and reargued for the respondents in No. 10
H. Albert Young – argued and reargued for the petitioners in No. 448 and No. 10
J. Lindsay Almond, Jr. – argued for the appellees in No.191 and reargued for the appellees in No. 2 and No. 4
John W. Davis – argued and reargued for the appellees in No. 101, No. 2 and No. 4
Jack Greenberg – argued and reargued for the respondents in No. 448 and No. 10
J. Lee Rankin – Assistant Attorney General, Department of Justice, for the United States, as amicus curiae, by special leave of Court in No. 2 and No. 4
Louis L. Redding – argued for the respondents in No. 448
Paul E. Wilson – argued and reargued for the appellees in No. 8 and No. 1
Robert L. Carter – argued and reargued for the appellants in No. 8 and No. 1
Spottswood Robinson III – argued for the appellants in No.191 and reargued for the appellants in No. 2 and No. 4
T. Justin Moore – argued and reargued for the appellees in No. 101, No. 2 and No. 4

Facts of the case

This case was the consolidation of four cases arising in separate states relating to the segregation of public schools on the basis of race. In each of the cases, African American minors had been denied admittance to certain public schools based on laws allowing public education to be segregated by race. They argued that such segregation violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The plaintiffs were denied relief based on the precedent set byPlessy v. Ferguson, which established the “separate but equal” doctrine that stated separate facilities for the races was constitutional as long as the facilities were “substantially equal.” In the case arising from Delaware, the Supreme Court of Delaware ruled that the African American students had to be admitted to the white public schools because of their higher quality facilities.

Question

Does the segregation of public education based solely on race violate the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment?